How to format your references using the Journal of Bioeconomics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Bioeconomics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Clayton, J. (2010). Chagas disease: pushing through the pipeline. Nature, 465(7301), S12-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schultz, P. G., & Lerner, R. A. (2002). Completing the circle. Nature, 418(6897), 485.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bi, X., Corpina, R. A., & Goldberg, J. (2002). Structure of the Sec23/24-Sar1 pre-budding complex of the COPII vesicle coat. Nature, 419(6904), 271–277.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Thomas, J. H., Weiss, N. O., Tobias, S. M., & Brummell, N. H. (2002). Downward pumping of magnetic flux as the cause of filamentary structures in sunspot penumbrae. Nature, 420(6914), 390–393.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lieberman, N. P. (2012). Troubleshooting Vacuum Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Tseng, K.-Y. (Ed.). (2009). Cortico-Subcortical Dynamics in Parkinson’s Disease. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.
A chapter in an edited book
Weber, R. H., & Weber, R. (2010). Governance of the Internet of Things. In R. Weber (Ed.), Internet of Things: Legal Perspectives (pp. 69–100). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Bioeconomics.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, August 19). Hummingbird Tongues Are Tiny Pumps That Spring Open To Draw In Nectar. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1974). Tools and Techniques for Improving the Efficiency of Federal Automatic Data Processing Operation (No. B-115369). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bailey, R. U. (2015). A Risk Analysis Tool for Evaluating ROI of TRA for Major Defense Acquisition Programs (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kasich, J. (2017, July 18). The Way Forward on Health Care. New York Times, p. A27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Clayton 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Clayton 2010; Schultz and Lerner 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Schultz and Lerner 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Thomas et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Bioeconomics
AbbreviationJ. Bioecon.
ISSN (print)1387-6996
ISSN (online)1573-6989
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics
Geography, Planning and Development

Other styles