How to format your references using the Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America (GEC). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Simmons D. Madame Bovary, c’est moi. Nature 2000;407(6801):137.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shapiro NM., Koulakov I. Geophysics. Probing the underbelly of a supervolcano. Science 2015;348(6236):758–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
van Polanen V., Bergmann Tiest WM., Kappers AML. Target contact and exploration strategies in haptic search. Sci Rep 2014;4:6254.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Fu D., Uauy C., Distelfeld A., et al. A kinase-START gene confers temperature-dependent resistance to wheat stripe rust. Science 2009;323(5919):1357–60.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vassiliou P-CG. Discrete-time Asset Pricing Models in Applied Stochastic Finance. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Li SZ. Handbook of Face Recognition. New York, NY: Springer; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Goodkind JR., Githinji A., Isakson B. Reducing Health Disparities Experienced by Refugees Resettled in Urban Areas: A Community-Based Transdisciplinary Intervention Model. In: Kirst M, Schaefer-McDaniel N, Hwang S, and O’Campo P, editors. Converging Disciplines: A Transdisciplinary Research Approach to Urban Health Problems. New York, NY: Springer; 2011. p. 41–55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America.

Blog post
Evans K. Architects Create Free DIY Sustainable “Indoor Garden” For Urban Living. IFLScience. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Highways and Transit: Private Sector Sponsorship of and Investment in Major Projects Has Been Limited. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tomlinson KL. Working with the imaginal: Art-making and dialogue with figures of soul. Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lowry MP. Watching Assumptions Walk Out the Door. New York Times 2015:BU7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleGastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America
AbbreviationGastrointest. Endosc. Clin. N. Am.
ISSN (print)1052-5157
ISSN (online)1558-1950

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