How to format your references using the Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America (GEC). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Grützmacher H. CHEMISTRY: New Chemical Bricks Made Through Phosphorus Tricks. Science 2000;289(5480):737–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Brochier C., Philippe H. Phylogeny: a non-hyperthermophilic ancestor for bacteria. Nature 2002;417(6886):244.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Grima JN., Attard D., Gatt R. Materials science. Unusual thermoelastic properties of methanol monohydrate. Science 2011;331(6018):687–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Ling X., Zhou X., Shu W., Luo H., Wen S. Realization of tunable photonic spin Hall effect by tailoring the Pancharatnam-berry phase. Sci Rep 2014;4:5557.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Gottlieb I. Next Generation Excel. 2 Clementi Loop, #02-01, Singapore 129809: John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte. Ltd.; 2009.
An edited book
1.
Panigrahi BK., Suganthan PN., Das S., Satapathy SC. Swarm, Evolutionary, and Memetic Computing: Second International Conference, SEMCCO 2011, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India, December 19-21, 2011, Proceedings, Part I. vol. 7076. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Lal A., Qadeer S. Reachability Modulo Theories. In: Abdulla PA, and Potapov I, editors. Reachability Problems: 7th International Workshop, RP 2013, Uppsala, Sweden, September 24-26, 2013 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. p. 23–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. Amazonian Turtle Mothers “Talk” To Their Offspring. IFLScience. Available at: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/amazonian-turtle-mothers-talk-their-offspring/. Accessed October 30, 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. [Comments on Federal Employee’s Entitlement to Relocation Expenses Pursuant to Proposed Transfer to FAA]. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Liang M. Information, communication and wayfinding: Technology shows us the world. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Greenhouse L. Justices Weigh In on Use Of Tapes and Transcripts. New York Times 2006:A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleGastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America
AbbreviationGastrointest. Endosc. Clin. N. Am.
ISSN (print)1052-5157
ISSN (online)1558-1950
ScopeGastroenterology

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