How to format your references using the Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America (GEC). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grill SW. Cell biology. Forced to be unequal. Science 2010;330(6004):597–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Grey K., Calver CR. Ediacaran oxidation and biotic evolution. Nature 2007;450(7170):E17; discussion E18.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schirle NT., Sheu-Gruttadauria J., MacRae IJ. Structural basis for microRNA targeting. Science 2014;346(6209):608–13.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Harper KL., Sosa MS., Entenberg D., et al. Corrigendum: Mechanism of early dissemination and metastasis in Her2+ mammary cancer. Nature 2018;553(7688):366.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Garde F., Aelenei D., Aelenei L., Scognamiglio A., Ayoub J. Solution Sets for Net-Zero Energy Buildings. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2017.
An edited book
Huang T., Zeng Z., Li C., Leung CS. Neural Information Processing: 19th International Conference, ICONIP 2012, Doha, Qatar, November 12-15, 2012, Proceedings, Part III. vol. 7665. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Schroeder P., Schieke SM., Morita A. Premature Skin Aging by Infrared Radiation, Tobacco Smoke and Ozone. In: Gilchrest BA, and Krutmann J, editors. Skin Aging. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006. p. 45–53.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America.

Blog post
Andrew E. Scientists Develop Lithium-Ion Battery That Can Be Stretched By 600%. IFLScience. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. State Department: Provision of Residential Furniture Inconsistent With Best Practices. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dubin-Thaler BJ. Evidence for hierarchical control of conserved, discrete motility types in crawling motility. Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University, New York, NY, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum MM., Steel E. Fox News, Pledging New Culture, Ousts Another Symbol of Old One. New York Times 2017:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleGastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America
AbbreviationGastrointest. Endosc. Clin. N. Am.
ISSN (print)1052-5157
ISSN (online)1558-1950

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