How to format your references using the Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America (GEC). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mattick JS. Genome-sequencing anniversary. The genomic foundation is shifting. Science 2011;331(6019):874.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nanda R., Rhodes-Kropf M. ENTREPRENEURSHIP. Financing experiments. Science 2015;348(6240):1200.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gerke J., Lorenz K., Cohen B. Genetic interactions between transcription factors cause natural variation in yeast. Science 2009;323(5913):498–501.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Chakrapani V., Angus JC., Anderson AB., Wolter SD., Stoner BR., Sumanasekera GU. Charge transfer equilibria between diamond and an aqueous oxygen electrochemical redox couple. Science 2007;318(5855):1424–30.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zinkin J. Rebuilding Trust in Banks. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
Taylor E., McMillan A. Air Quality Management: Canadian Perspectives on a Global Issue. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Hirschel EH., Weiland C. Aerothermodynamic Design Problems of Winged Airbreathing Vehicles. In: Weiland C, editor. Selected Aerothermodynamic Design Problems of Hypersonic Flight Vehicles. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009. p. 129–209.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America.

Blog post
Andrew E. Stem cell breakthrough could be a game changer for personalized medicine. IFLScience. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Social Security Administration: Fugitive Felon Program Could Benefit from Better Use of Technology. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Scharf MT. Comparing Student Cumulative Course Grades, Attrition, and Satisfaction in Traditional and Virtual Classroom Environments. Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B. Theater; The Terrain Where Generations Meet. New York Times 2017:AR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleGastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America
AbbreviationGastrointest. Endosc. Clin. N. Am.
ISSN (print)1052-5157
ISSN (online)1558-1950

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