How to format your references using the Physics and Imaging in Radiation Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Physics and Imaging in Radiation Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
McNamara BR. Astronomy. Feedback on galaxy formation. Science 2013;341:1073–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Brunnschweiler CN, Bulte EH. Economics. Linking natural resources to slow growth and more conflict. Science 2008;320:616–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
McCord TB, Hansen GB, Hibbitts CA. Hydrated salt minerals on Ganymede’s surface: evidence of an ocean below. Science 2001;292:1523–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Soden BJ, Wetherald RT, Stenchikov GL, Robock A. Global cooling after the eruption of Mount Pinatubo: a test of climate feedback by water vapor. Science 2002;296:727–30.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Shi Z-J. Homogeneous Catalysis for Unreactive Bond Activation. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
[1]
Li Y, Kaiser G, editors. Expertise in Mathematics Instruction: An International Perspective. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Vinx L. The Kelsen-Hart Debate: Hart’s Critique of Kelsen’s Legal Monism Reconsidered. In: Telman DAJ, editor. Hans Kelsen in America - Selective Affinities and the Mysteries of Academic Influence, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016, p. 59–83.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Physics and Imaging in Radiation Oncology.

Blog post
[1]
O`Callaghan J. NASA’s Asteroid-Sampling Spacecraft Has Now Been Fully Built Ahead Of Its 2016 Launch. IFLScience 2015.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Safety: FAA Should Improve Usability of its Online Application System and Clarity of the Pilot’s Medical Form. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Harris SK. Dissecting the Disappearing Act: Discussing the Dissipation of Black Male Role Models in Black Communities. Doctoral dissertation. Southern Illinois University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Kelly M. THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: Candidate’s Record; The Matter of Trust: Clinton’s Big Burden. New York Times 1992:124.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePhysics and Imaging in Radiation Oncology
AbbreviationPhys. Imaging Radiat. Oncol.
ISSN (print)2405-6316
Scope

Other styles