How to format your references using the Physics and Imaging in Radiation Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Physics and Imaging in Radiation Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Cardinale B. Ecology. Impacts of biodiversity loss. Science 2012;336:552–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Embley TM, Martin W. Eukaryotic evolution, changes and challenges. Nature 2006;440:623–30.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Warrick DR, Tobalske BW, Powers DR. Aerodynamics of the hovering hummingbird. Nature 2005;435:1094–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Meinshausen M, Meinshausen N, Hare W, Raper SCB, Frieler K, Knutti R, et al. Greenhouse-gas emission targets for limiting global warming to 2 degrees C. Nature 2009;458:1158–62.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Stacey D. Aeronautical Radio Communication Systems and Networks. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
[1]
Cortesi A, Chaki N, Saeed K, Wierzchoń S, editors. Computer Information Systems and Industrial Management: 11th IFIP TC 8 International Conference, CISIM 2012, Venice, Italy, September 26-28, 2012. Proceedings. vol. 7564. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Xiang Y, Peng D, Yang Z. Dependent Component Analysis Using Precoding. In: Peng D, Yang Z, editors. Blind Source Separation: Dependent Component Analysis, Singapore: Springer; 2015, p. 73–90.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Physics and Imaging in Radiation Oncology.

Blog post
[1]
Andrew D. How The 18th-Century Steam Engine Helped Physicists Make A Quantum Breakthrough. IFLScience 2016.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Cuban Embargo: Selected Issues Relating to Travel, Exports, and Telecommunications. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Rhoads EP. Knowledge management practices in U.S. federal agencies: The catalyst for E-Government transformation. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University, 2006.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Hubbard B, Almosawa S. Somali Migrants’ Trek Becomes Scene of Horror. New York Times 2017:A7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePhysics and Imaging in Radiation Oncology
AbbreviationPhys. Imaging Radiat. Oncol.
ISSN (print)2405-6316
Scope

Other styles