How to format your references using the Physics and Imaging in Radiation Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Physics and Imaging in Radiation Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Pizzorusso T. Neuroscience. Erasing fear memories. Science 2009;325:1214–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Jewitt DC, Luu J. Crystalline water ice on the Kuiper belt object (50000) Quaoar. Nature 2004;432:731–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Erickson B, Singh R, Winters P. Synthetic biology: regulating industry uses of new biotechnologies. Science 2011;333:1254–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Allen RL, Bittner-Eddy PD, Grenville-Briggs LJ, Meitz JC, Rehmany AP, Rose LE, et al. Host-parasite coevolutionary conflict between Arabidopsis and downy mildew. Science 2004;306:1957–60.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Firth-Cozens J, Harrison J. How to Survive in Medicine. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2010.
An edited book
[1]
Maiuri MC, De Stefano D, editors. Autophagy Networks in Inflammation. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Droste-Franke B, Paal BP, Rehtanz C, Sauer DU, Schneider J-P, Schreurs M, et al. Demand for Balancing Electrical Energy and Power. In: Paal BP, Rehtanz C, Sauer DU, Schneider J-P, Schreurs M, Ziesemer T, editors. Balancing Renewable Electricity: Energy Storage, Demand Side Management, and Network Extension from an Interdisciplinary Perspective, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012, p. 61–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Physics and Imaging in Radiation Oncology.

Blog post
[1]
Luntz S. New Battery Technologies Developed That Don’t Need Rare Materials. IFLScience 2017.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Online Access to Legislative Information. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1981.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Black DD. Franz Liszt’s “Via Crucis”: A summation of the composer’s styles and beliefs. Doctoral dissertation. University of Arizona, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Greenhouse L. Oral Dissents Give Ginsburg A New Voice. New York Times 2007:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePhysics and Imaging in Radiation Oncology
AbbreviationPhys. Imaging Radiat. Oncol.
ISSN (print)2405-6316
Scope

Other styles