How to format your references using the Pediatrics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pediatrics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bourzac K. Microbiome: the bacterial tightrope. Nature. 2014;516(7529):S14-6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gray J, Druker B. Genomics: the breast cancer landscape. Nature. 2012;486(7403):328-329.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li J, Zhu L, Gummerum M. The relationship between moral judgment and cooperation in children with high-functioning autism. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4314.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Marcikic I, de Riedmatten H, Tittel W, Zbinden H, Gisin N. Long-distance teleportation of qubits at telecommunication wavelengths. Nature. 2003;421(6922):509-513.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Das SK. Mobile Handset Design. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2010.
An edited book
Apsel A. Design of Ultra-Low Power Impulse Radios. Vol 124. (Wang X, Dokania R, eds.). Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Denk R, Kaip M. Triebel-Lizorkin spaces and the L p -L q -setting. In: Kaip M, ed. General Parabolic Mixed Order Systems in Lp and Applications. Operator Theory: Advances and Applications. Springer International Publishing; 2013:143-185.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pediatrics.

Blog post
Hale T. Thanks To Cosmic Rays, We Finally Know What The Inside Of A Pyramid Looks Like. IFLScience. Published May 5, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Followup Review of the National Science Foundation’s Conflict of Interest Resolution System for Short-Term Employees. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1984.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ma Y. Vesicular Stomatitis Virus as a Vector to Deliver Virus-Like Particles of Human Norovirus: A New Live Vectored Vaccine for Human Norovirus. Doctoral dissertation. Ohio State University; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodgman J. Bonus Advice From Judge John Hodgman. New York Times. October 6, 2016:MM26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePediatrics
ISSN (print)0031-4005
ISSN (online)1098-4275
ScopePediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

Other styles