How to format your references using the Pediatrics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pediatrics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gershon D. Are mega-mergers good medicine for the pharmaceutical industry? Nature. 2000;405(6783):257-258.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mitra PP, Stark JB. Nonlinear limits to the information capacity of optical fibre communications. Nature. 2001;411(6841):1027-1030.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mempel TR, Henrickson SE, Von Andrian UH. T-cell priming by dendritic cells in lymph nodes occurs in three distinct phases. Nature. 2004;427(6970):154-159.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Gavriil FP, Gonzalez ME, Gotthelf EV, Kaspi VM, Livingstone MA, Woods PM. Magnetar-like emission from the young pulsar in Kes 75. Science. 2008;319(5871):1802-1805.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Laster B. Professional Git®. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
Privat M. Pro Core Data for IOS: Data Access and Persistence Engine for IPhone, IPad, and IPod Touch. Second Edition. (Warner R, ed.). Apress; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Criado J, Martínez S, Iribarne L, Cabot J. Enabling the Reuse of Stored Model Transformations Through Annotations. In: Kolovos D, Wimmer M, eds. Theory and Practice of Model Transformations: 8th International Conference, ICMT 2015, Held as Part of STAF 2015, L’Aquila, Italy, July 20-21, 2015. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing; 2015:43-58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pediatrics.

Blog post
Andrew E. Common Misconceptions About Global Warming. IFLScience. Published September 24, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Family Education Loan Program: Eliminating the Exceptional Performer Designation Would Result in Substantial Savings without Adversely Affecting the Loan Program. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Barham OM. Microfabricated Bulk Piezoelectric Transformers. Published online 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Daoud K. The French Disconnection. New York Times. April 21, 2017:A27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePediatrics
ISSN (print)0031-4005
ISSN (online)1098-4275
ScopePediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

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