How to format your references using the Geomechanics for Energy and the Environment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geomechanics for Energy and the Environment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Hanash S. Disease proteomics. Nature. 2003;422(6928):226-232.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Zeller D, Booth S. Costs and benefits of regulating mercury. Science. 2005;310(5749):777-779; author reply 777-9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Huang X, Xu Y, Karato S-I. Water content in the transition zone from electrical conductivity of wadsleyite and ringwoodite. Nature. 2005;434(7034):746-749.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Kelly BC, Ikonomou MG, Blair JD, Morin AE, Gobas FAPC. Food web-specific biomagnification of persistent organic pollutants. Science. 2007;317(5835):236-239.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Heckman R. Designing Platform Independent Mobile Apps and Services. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
1.
Demidenko GV, Vaskevich VL, eds. Selected Works of S.L. Sobolev: Volume I: Mathematical Physics, Computational Mathematics, and Cubature Formulas. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Masuta N, Yagihashi M, Narita H, Fujimoto H. A Non-invasive Method to Measure Joint Range of Motion for Hip Joints. In: Shirase K, Aoyagi S, eds. Service Robotics and Mechatronics: Selected Papers of the International Conference on Machine Automation ICMA2008. London: Springer; 2010:27-32.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geomechanics for Energy and the Environment.

Blog post
1.
Luntz S. Tiny Marine Creatures Reveal The Environmental Limits To Diversity. IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/tiny-marine-creatures-reveal-the-environmental-limits-to-diversity/. Published June 14, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Federal-Aid Highways: Trends, Effect on State Spending, and Options for Future Program Design. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Swofford DM. Impact of a pharmaceutical company’s leadership development program on participant leadership behavior. 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Crow K. Free Tales From Mr. Kafka’s Crypt, (And Thousands of Records, Too). New York Times. October 28, 2001:148.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleGeomechanics for Energy and the Environment
ISSN (print)2352-3808
ScopeComputers in Earth Sciences
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality

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