How to format your references using the Geomechanics for Energy and the Environment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geomechanics for Energy and the Environment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Champion PM. Chemistry. Following the flow of energy in biomolecules. Science. 2005;310(5750):980-982.
A journal article with 2 authors
McPhaden MJ, Zhang D. Slowdown of the meridional overturning circulation in the upper Pacific Ocean. Nature. 2002;415(6872):603-608.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gardner TS, Cantor CR, Collins JJ. Construction of a genetic toggle switch in Escherichia coli. Nature. 2000;403(6767):339-342.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Sunshine JM, Connolly HC Jr, McCoy TJ, Bus SJ, La Croix LM. Ancient asteroids enriched in refractory inclusions. Science. 2008;320(5875):514-517.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Idelberger K. The World of Footbridges. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2011.
An edited book
Sommer WH, Spanagel R, eds. Behavioral Neurobiology of Alcohol Addiction. Vol 13. Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Kleinpoppen H, Lohmann B, Grum-Grzhimailo AN. Concluding Remarks. In: Lohmann B, Grum-Grzhimailo AN, eds. Perfect/Complete Scattering Experiments: Probing Quantum Mechanics on Atomic and Molecular Collisions and Coincidences. Springer Series on Atomic, Optical, and Plasma Physics. Springer; 2013:293-295.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geomechanics for Energy and the Environment.

Blog post
Fang J. The Gut Microbe That Protects Against Peanut Allergies. IFLScience. Published August 27, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Voluntary Consensus Standards: Agencies’ Compliance With the National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cuvar KM. Balanced and Collaborative Outsourcing of IT Services: A Qualitative Delphi Study of Enterprise Partnerships. Doctoral dissertation. University of Phoenix; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gorman J. Simple Signal Sets Off Complex Frog Journey. New York Times. October 24, 2017:D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleGeomechanics for Energy and the Environment
ISSN (print)2352-3808
ScopeComputers in Earth Sciences
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality

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