How to format your references using the Geomechanics for Energy and the Environment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geomechanics for Energy and the Environment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pusey PN. Physics. Brownian motion goes ballistic. Science. 2011;332(6031):802-803.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nesbit J, Bradford M. 2009 Visualization Challenge. Science. 2010;327(5968):945-955.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sharp DJ, Rogers GC, Scholey JM. Microtubule motors in mitosis. Nature. 2000;407(6800):41-47.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhang LL, Duan S, Yang XL, et al. Systematic investigation on Cadmium-incorporation in Li₂FeSiO₄/C cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5064.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Walkenbach J. Excel® VBA Programming For Dummies®. Wiley Publishing, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Shimjith SR. Modeling and Control of a Large Nuclear Reactor: A Three-Time-Scale Approach. Vol 431. (Tiwari AP, Bandyopadhyay B, eds.). Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Waki K. Assessment of Extracardiac and Intracardiac Anatomy by MD-CT. In: Senzaki H, Yasukochi S, eds. Congenital Heart Disease: Morphological and Functional Assessment. Springer Japan; 2015:71-94.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geomechanics for Energy and the Environment.

Blog post
Andrew E. Blame It On Mum And Dad: How Genes Influence What We Eat. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. ADP Acquisitions: Immigration and Naturalization Service Should Terminate Its Contract and Recompete. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1986.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Aguilar M. Latina Single Mothers: Perspectives on Parenting. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg B. Film Series. New York Times. June 29, 2017:C22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleGeomechanics for Energy and the Environment
ISSN (print)2352-3808
ScopeComputers in Earth Sciences
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality

Other styles