How to format your references using the Medicine in Drug Discovery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medicine in Drug Discovery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gies E. Recycling: Lazarus batteries. Nature 2015;526:S100-1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Munshi NV, Olson EN. Translational medicine. Improving cardiac rhythm with a biological pacemaker. Science 2014;345:268–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Logoteta D, Fiori G, Iannaccone G. Graphene-based lateral heterostructure transistors exhibit better intrinsic performance than graphene-based vertical transistors as post-CMOS devices. Sci Rep 2014;4:6607.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Saldivar JC, Hamperl S, Bocek MJ, Chung M, Bass TE, Cisneros-Soberanis F, et al. An intrinsic S/G2 checkpoint enforced by ATR. Science 2018;361:806–10.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Berthier J, Brakke KA, Berthier E. Open Microfluidics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
Wabnitz S, Eggleton BJ, editors. All-Optical Signal Processing: Data Communication and Storage Applications. vol. 194. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Curry GL, Feldman RM. Processing Time Variability. In: Feldman RM, editor. Manufacturing Systems Modeling and Analysis, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009, p. 109–23.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medicine in Drug Discovery.

Blog post
Taub B. Rice And Wheat Production Use More Water Than All Other Crops Put Together. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Auto Safety: NHTSA Has Options to Improve the Safety Defect Recall Process. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Builes AJ. Inferring Function: A Study of Three Prehistoric Structures in El Pital, Puerto López, Manabí, Ecuador. Doctoral dissertation. Florida Atlantic University, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rowan J. A Less Than Honorable Policy. New York Times 2016:A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMedicine in Drug Discovery
ISSN (print)2590-0986

Other styles