How to format your references using the Medicine in Drug Discovery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medicine in Drug Discovery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gregersen PK. Genetics. A genomic road map for complex human disease. Science 2014;343:1087–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Marone F, Romanowicz B. The depth distribution of azimuthal anisotropy in the continental upper mantle. Nature 2007;447:198–201.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jiang H, Huang N, Zhu Y. Analysis of wind-blown sand movement over transverse dunes. Sci Rep 2014;4:7114.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Pichlmair A, Schulz O, Tan CP, Näslund TI, Liljeström P, Weber F, et al. RIG-I-mediated antiviral responses to single-stranded RNA bearing 5’-phosphates. Science 2006;314:997–1001.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Heads G. Living Mindfully. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
Torre Toledano D, Ortega Giménez A, Teixeira A, González Rodríguez J, Hernández Gómez L, San Segundo Hernández R, et al., editors. Advances in Speech and Language Technologies for Iberian Languages: IberSPEECH 2012 Conference, Madrid, Spain, November 21-23, 2012. Proceedings. vol. 328. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Lau C. Cytogenetics: Applications. In: Lakhani SR, Fox SB, editors. Molecular Pathology in Cancer Research, New York, NY: Springer; 2016, p. 67–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medicine in Drug Discovery.

Blog post
Andrew D. What You See Is Not Always What You Get: How Virtual Reality Can Manipulate Our Minds. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Capitation Support and Its Role in the Operation of Medical Schools. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Saguilig LG. A Clinical Decision Support System for the Prevention of Genetic-Related Heart Disease. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper M. Venezuela Cancels Dudamel’s Tour. New York Times 2017:C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMedicine in Drug Discovery
ISSN (print)2590-0986

Other styles