How to format your references using the Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
T. Clarke, Penicillin paper restores Fleming’s healthy reputation, Nature. 419 (2002) 867.
A journal article with 2 authors
S.I.S. Grewal, D. Moazed, Heterochromatin and epigenetic control of gene expression, Science. 301 (2003) 798–802.
A journal article with 3 authors
P. Schall, D.A. Weitz, F. Spaepen, Structural rearrangements that govern flow in colloidal glasses, Science. 318 (2007) 1895–1899.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J.A.M. Coull, D. Boudreau, K. Bachand, S.A. Prescott, F. Nault, A. Sík, P. De Koninck, Y. De Koninck, Trans-synaptic shift in anion gradient in spinal lamina I neurons as a mechanism of neuropathic pain, Nature. 424 (2003) 938–942.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P. Ciana, New Frontiers in Technical Analysis, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2011.
An edited book
J. Mathew, R.A. Shafik, D.K. Pradhan, eds., Energy-Efficient Fault-Tolerant Systems, Springer, New York, NY, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
D. Hertel, C. Leuschner, M. Harteveld, M. Wiens, Fine root mass, distribution and regeneration in disturbed primary forests and secondary forests of the moist tropics, in: T. Tscharntke, C. Leuschner, M. Zeller, E. Guhardja, A. Bidin (Eds.), Stability of Tropical Rainforest Margins: Linking Ecological, Economic and Social Constraints of Land Use and Conservation, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007: pp. 87–106.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing.

Blog post
J. O`Callaghan, Burning All Remaining Fossil Fuels Could Raise Sea Levels 60 Meters, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, DOD Business Systems Modernization: Billions Continue to Be Invested with Inadequate Management Oversight and Accountability, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D.J. Ratliff, Teen parenting curriculum: A grant proposal project, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Barron, A Cathedral-Like Home For a Church’s Peacocks, New York Times. (2017) A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMechanical Systems and Signal Processing
AbbreviationMech. Syst. Signal Process.
ISSN (print)0888-3270
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Signal Processing
Aerospace Engineering
Civil and Structural Engineering
Control and Systems Engineering
Mechanical Engineering

Other styles