How to format your references using the Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J.H. Fewell, Social insect networks, Science. 301 (2003) 1867–1870.
A journal article with 2 authors
A.D. Anbar, A.H. Knoll, Proterozoic ocean chemistry and evolution: a bioinorganic bridge?, Science. 297 (2002) 1137–1142.
A journal article with 3 authors
J.C. Juanes-Marcos, S.C. Althorpe, E. Wrede, Theoretical study of geometric phase effects in the hydrogen-exchange reaction, Science. 309 (2005) 1227–1230.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
L. Li, J. Liang, S.-Y. Chou, X. Zhu, X. Niu, ZhibinYu, Q. Pei, A solution processed flexible nanocomposite electrode with efficient light extraction for organic light emitting diodes, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4307.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
W.B. Rowe, Modern Grinding Techniques, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2010.
An edited book
C.E. Burkhardt, Topics in Atomic Physics, Springer, New York, NY, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
L.-O. Reiersen, S. Wilson, The Arctic – a Sentinel for Environmental Processes and Effects, in: S. Wasum-Rainer, I. Winkelmann, K. Tiroch (Eds.), Arctic Science, International Law and Climate Change: Legal Aspects of Marine Science in the Arctic Ocean, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012: pp. 15–36.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing.

Blog post
S. Luntz, World War I Antiseptic Could Be Revived To Treat Superbugs, IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Federal Judiciary: Information on the Weighted Filings Assigned to Senior District and Magistrate Judges in Fiscal Year 1997 in 21 District Courts, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J.D. Hutsell, School board members’ perception on their roles and responsibilities in developing policy that affects student achievement, Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S.K. (nyt), World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Putin Says Politics Needs More Women, New York Times. (2003) A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMechanical Systems and Signal Processing
AbbreviationMech. Syst. Signal Process.
ISSN (print)0888-3270
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Signal Processing
Aerospace Engineering
Civil and Structural Engineering
Control and Systems Engineering
Mechanical Engineering

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