How to format your references using the Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J.D. Fridley, Extended leaf phenology and the autumn niche in deciduous forest invasions, Nature. 485 (2012) 359–362.
A journal article with 2 authors
A. Imambekov, L.I. Glazman, Universal theory of nonlinear Luttinger liquids, Science. 323 (2009) 228–231.
A journal article with 3 authors
N. Shubin, C. Tabin, S. Carroll, Deep homology and the origins of evolutionary novelty, Nature. 457 (2009) 818–823.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
U. Mogera, A.A. Sagade, S.J. George, G.U. Kulkarni, Ultrafast response humidity sensor using supramolecular nanofibre and its application in monitoring breath humidity and flow, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4103.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
K. Nguyen, X. Guo, Y. Pan, Multiple Biological Sequence Alignment: Scoring Functions, Algorithms and Applications, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2016.
An edited book
S. Barker, G.-J. Ahn, eds., Data and Applications Security XXI: 21st Annual IFIP WG 11.3 Working Conference on Data and Applications Security, Redondo Beach, CA, USA, July 8-11, 2007. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
J. Eberspächer, R. Schollmeier, 5. First and Second Generation of Peer-to-Peer Systems, in: R. Steinmetz, K. Wehrle (Eds.), Peer-to-Peer Systems and Applications, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2005: pp. 35–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Drone Quadcopter Explores Volcanic Eruption, IFLScience. (2014).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Deaf Education: The National Mission of Gallaudet’s Elementary and Secondary Schools, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C.J. Alimo, From dialogue to action: The development of White racial allies, Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Lambert, S. Chang, After Legal Battle, Nassau Leader Is Re-elected, New York Times. (2006) B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMechanical Systems and Signal Processing
AbbreviationMech. Syst. Signal Process.
ISSN (print)0888-3270
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Signal Processing
Aerospace Engineering
Civil and Structural Engineering
Control and Systems Engineering
Mechanical Engineering

Other styles