How to format your references using the Physical Therapy in Sport citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Physical Therapy in Sport. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Abbott, N. L. (2013). Applied physics. Colloid science collides with liquid crystals. Science (New York, N.Y.), 342(6164), 1326–1327.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chavis, P., & Westbrook, G. (2001). Integrins mediate functional pre- and postsynaptic maturation at a hippocampal synapse. Nature, 411(6835), 317–321.
A journal article with 3 authors
Paige, J. S., Wu, K. Y., & Jaffrey, S. R. (2011). RNA mimics of green fluorescent protein. Science (New York, N.Y.), 333(6042), 642–646.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Bode, M., Heide, M., von Bergmann, K., Ferriani, P., Heinze, S., Bihlmayer, G., … Wiesendanger, R. (2007). Chiral magnetic order at surfaces driven by inversion asymmetry. Nature, 447(7141), 190–193.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wilson, R. C. (2010). The Hedge Fund Book. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Tanaka, M. (Ed.). (2014). Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm of the Pancreas. Tokyo: Springer Japan.
A chapter in an edited book
Campbell, L. J. (2016). Numerical Simulations of the Dynamics of Vortex Rossby Waves on a Beta-Plane. In J. Bélair, I. A. Frigaard, H. Kunze, R. Makarov, R. Melnik, & R. J. Spiteri (Eds.), Mathematical and Computational Approaches in Advancing Modern Science and Engineering (pp. 35–46). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Physical Therapy in Sport.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, August 6). Rosetta Prepares to Rendezvous With Comet. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2010). DOD Business Transformation: Improved Management Oversight of Business System Modernization Efforts Needed (No. GAO-11-53). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Binney, I. (2014). Registered Nurses’ Perceptions of Work Engagement and Turnover Intentions in a Long-Term Care Facility: A Case Study (Doctoral dissertation). Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodgman, J. (2016, November 18). Bonus Advice From Judge John Hodgman. New York Times, p. MM30.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Abbott, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Abbott, 2013; Chavis & Westbrook, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chavis & Westbrook, 2001)
  • Three authors: (Paige, Wu, & Jaffrey, 2011)
  • 6 or more authors: (Bode et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhysical Therapy in Sport
AbbreviationPhys. Ther. Sport
ISSN (print)1466-853X
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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