How to format your references using the Physical Therapy in Sport citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Physical Therapy in Sport. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rouault, T. A. (2004). Microbiology. Pathogenic bacteria prefer heme. Science (New York, N.Y.), 305(5690), 1577–1578.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schwartz, M. A., & Chen, C. S. (2013). Cell biology. Deconstructing dimensionality. Science (New York, N.Y.), 339(6118), 402–404.
A journal article with 3 authors
Syntichaki, P., Topalidou, I., & Thireos, G. (2000). The Gcn5 bromodomain co-ordinates nucleosome remodelling. Nature, 404(6776), 414–417.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Weill, M., Lutfalla, G., Mogensen, K., Chandre, F., Berthomieu, A., Berticat, C., Pasteur, N., Philips, A., Fort, P., & Raymond, M. (2003). Comparative genomics: Insecticide resistance in mosquito vectors. Nature, 423(6936), 136–137.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bolstad, W. M. (2009). Understanding Computational Bayesian Statistics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Majumdar, S., Guha, S., & Marakkath, N. (Eds.). (2015). Technology and Innovation for Social Change. Springer India.
A chapter in an edited book
Tuunanen, T., Koskinen, J., & Kärkkäinen, T. (2006). Retrieving Open Source Software Licenses. In E. Damiani, B. Fitzgerald, W. Scacchi, M. Scotto, & G. Succi (Eds.), Open Source Systems: IFIP Working Group 2.13 Foundation on Open Source Software, June 8–10, 2006, Como, Italy (pp. 35–46). Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Physical Therapy in Sport.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, July 20). Watch As This Engineer Cranks Up A 20,000-Watt Light Bulb In His Backyard. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1979). Federal R&D Budget (109022). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Beeler, M. C. (2010). Disordered Ultracold Two-Dimensional Bose Gases [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Philipps, D., & Hubbard, B. (2017, July 25). U.S. Soldier Who Survived Fatal Attack by a Jordanian Tells His Story. New York Times, A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rouault, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Rouault, 2004; Schwartz & Chen, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Schwartz & Chen, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Syntichaki et al., 2000)
  • 6 or more authors: (Weill et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhysical Therapy in Sport
AbbreviationPhys. Ther. Sport
ISSN (print)1466-853X
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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