How to format your references using the Physical Therapy in Sport citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Physical Therapy in Sport. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Said, R. (2002). Did Nile flooding sink two ancient cities? Nature, 415(6867), 37–38.
A journal article with 2 authors
Doudna, J. A., & Charpentier, E. (2014). Genome editing. The new frontier of genome engineering with CRISPR-Cas9. Science (New York, N.Y.), 346(6213), 1258096.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fu, Y., Xu, Y., & Chen, H. (2014). Additional modes in a waveguide system of zero-index-metamaterials with defects. Scientific Reports, 4, 6428.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Koh, W.-K., Koposov, A. Y., Stewart, J. T., Pal, B. N., Robel, I., Pietryga, J. M., & Klimov, V. I. (2013). Heavily doped n-type PbSe and PbS nanocrystals using ground-state charge transfer from cobaltocene. Scientific Reports, 3, 2004.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Van Der Pijl, P., Solomon, L. K., & Lokitz, J. (2016). How To Design a Better Business. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Gattringer, C. (2010). Quantum Chromodynamics on the Lattice: An Introductory Presentation (C. B. Lang, Ed.; Vol. 788). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Giorgi, E. (2013). 1995. In R. Betti, A. Guerraggio, & S. Termini (Eds.), Storie e protagonisti della matematica italiana: per raccontare 20 anni di «Lettera Matematica Pristem» (pp. 65–78). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Physical Therapy in Sport.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, July 7). How To Create Your Own Ecosystem In A Bottle. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1992). Law Enforcement: Information on the Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Department Gang Reporting, Evaluation, and Tracking System (T-GGD-92-52). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lyzlov, A. (2017). In Vivo Efficacy of Lanthanum Carbonate on Intestinal Phosphorus Absorption in Stage Five Chronic Kidney Disease Patients Undergoing Peritoneal Dialysis [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wyatt, E., & Walsh, M. W. (2012, October 31). For Flood Victims, Another Blow Is Possible. New York Times, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Said, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Doudna & Charpentier, 2014; Said, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Doudna & Charpentier, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Fu et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Koh et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhysical Therapy in Sport
AbbreviationPhys. Ther. Sport
ISSN (print)1466-853X
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Other styles