How to format your references using the Physical Therapy in Sport citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Physical Therapy in Sport. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jones, R. (2010). Biomarkers: casting the net wide. Nature, 466(7310), S11-2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Neale, M. J., & Keeney, S. (2006). Clarifying the mechanics of DNA strand exchange in meiotic recombination. Nature, 442(7099), 153–158.
A journal article with 3 authors
Choudhury, S., Morgan, D., & Uberuaga, B. P. (2014). Massive interfacial reconstruction at misfit dislocations in metal/oxide interfaces. Scientific Reports, 4, 6533.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Baublitz, M., Lane, C., Lin, H., Hafiz, H., Markiewicz, R. S., Barbiellini, B., Sun, Z., Dessau, D. S., & Bansil, A. (2014). A Minimal tight-binding model for ferromagnetic canted bilayer manganites. Scientific Reports, 4, 7512.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lee, M., & Bieker, G. (2009). Mastering. Wiley Publishing, Inc.
An edited book
Ellanti, M. N. (2005). Next Generation Transport Networks: Data, Management, and Control Planes (L. G. Raman, S. S. Gorshe, & W. D. Grover, Eds.). Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Yalowitz, K. S. (2013). Arctic Climate Change: Security Challenges and Stewardship Opportunities. In P. A. Berkman & A. N. Vylegzhanin (Eds.), Environmental Security in the Arctic Ocean (pp. 31–36). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Physical Therapy in Sport.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, October 14). Astronomers Have Spotted Something Very, Very Strange Surrounding A Distant Star. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1997). School Finance: State Efforts to Reduce Funding Gaps Between Poor and Wealthy Districts (HEHS-97-31). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stahlhut, C. W. (2012). Aerodynamic design optimization of proprotors for convertible-rotor concepts [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2017, October 20). Baker Is Out as the Nationals Manager. New York Times, D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Jones, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Jones, 2010; Neale & Keeney, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Neale & Keeney, 2006)
  • Three authors: (Choudhury et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Baublitz et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhysical Therapy in Sport
AbbreviationPhys. Ther. Sport
ISSN (print)1466-853X
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Other styles