How to format your references using the Physical Therapy in Sport citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Physical Therapy in Sport. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mackman, N. (2008). Triggers, targets and treatments for thrombosis. Nature, 451(7181), 914–918.
A journal article with 2 authors
Evans, J. A., & Reimer, J. (2009). Open access and global participation in science. Science (New York, N.Y.), 323(5917), 1025.
A journal article with 3 authors
Petsch, S. T., Eglington, T. I., & Edwards, K. J. (2001). 14C-dead living biomass: evidence for microbial assimilation of ancient organic carbon during shale weathering. Science (New York, N.Y.), 292(5519), 1127–1131.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zhang, Z., Gong, X., Zhang, S., Yang, H., Shi, Y., Yang, C., Zhang, X., Xiong, X., Fang, X., & Ouyang, Z. (2013). Observation of replacement of carbon in benzene with nitrogen in a low-temperature plasma. Scientific Reports, 3, 3481.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dubuisson, S. (2015). Tracking with Particle Filter for High-Dimensional Observation and State Spaces. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Kokilashvili, V. (2016). Integral Operators in Non-Standard Function Spaces: Volume 1: Variable Exponent Lebesgue and Amalgam Spaces (A. Meskhi, H. Rafeiro, & S. Samko, Eds.; Vol. 248). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Stranahan, A. M., & Mattson, M. P. (2010). Stress Hormones and Neuroplasticity in the Diabetic Brain. In S. Craft & Y. Christen (Eds.), Diabetes, Insulin and Alzheimer’s Disease (pp. 57–71). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Physical Therapy in Sport.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, May 16). Mutations of Cancer ‘Stem Cells’ Tracked For The First Time. IFLScience; IFLScience.‘stem-cells’-tracked-first-time/


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2005). Commercial Aviation: Structural Costs Continue to Challenge Legacy Airlines’ Financial Performance (GAO-05-834T). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shan, J. (2014). A Theoretical Investigation of Radial Lateral Wells with Shockwave Completion in Shale Gas Reservoirs [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. (2012, November 8). Slugger’s Penalty Includes a Walk Through History. New York Times, B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mackman, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Evans & Reimer, 2009; Mackman, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Evans & Reimer, 2009)
  • Three authors: (Petsch et al., 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Zhang et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhysical Therapy in Sport
AbbreviationPhys. Ther. Sport
ISSN (print)1466-853X
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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