How to format your references using the Acta Ophthalmologica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Acta Ophthalmologica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grinnell F (2013): It is time to update US biomedical funding. Nature 501: 137.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mongiat LA & Schinder AF (2014): Neuroscience. A price to pay for adult neurogenesis. Science 344: 594–595.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sleutels F, Zwart R & Barlow DP (2002): The non-coding Air RNA is required for silencing autosomal imprinted genes. Nature 415: 810–813.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Nolte P, Stierle A, Jin-Phillipp NY, Kasper N, Schulli TU & Dosch H (2008): Shape changes of supported Rh nanoparticles during oxidation and reduction cycles. Science 321: 1654–1658.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zwecher MJ (2010): Retirement Portfolios. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Teichler U (2013): The Changing Academic Profession: Major Findings of a Comparative Survey. (Arimoto A & Cummings WK, Eds.)The Changing Academy – The Changing Academic Profession in International Comparative Perspective (Vol. 1). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Yang M & Yu X (2015): Overall Methodology in This Study. In: Yu X (ed.) Energy Efficiency: Benefits for Environment and Society, Green Energy and Technology. London: Springer 43–48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Acta Ophthalmologica.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015, September 25): Colorful ‘Dragon Scales’ On Pluto Perplex Scientists. IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1999): Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Readiness of the Telecommunications Industry (No. AIMD-99-293). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Eaglin M (2012): A secondary data analysis of Latino families who successfully terminated with family preservation (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mueller B, Wang V & Piccoli S (2017, July 15): 3 Men From Shelter Held in Sexual Assault on Woman Leaving Church. New York Times, p. A17. A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Grinnell 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Grinnell 2013, Mongiat & Schinder 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mongiat & Schinder 2014)
  • Three authors: (Sleutels, Zwart & Barlow 2002)
  • Four or more authors: (Nolte et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleActa Ophthalmologica
AbbreviationActa Ophthalmol.
ISSN (print)1755-375X
ISSN (online)1755-3768
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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