How to format your references using the Acta Ophthalmologica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Acta Ophthalmologica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ellman JA (2007): Chemistry. The direct approach. Science 316: 1131–1132.
A journal article with 2 authors
Buchan JR & Parker R (2007): Molecular biology. The two faces of miRNA. Science 318: 1877–1878.
A journal article with 3 authors
Karner MB, DeLong EF & Karl DM (2001): Archaeal dominance in the mesopelagic zone of the Pacific Ocean. Nature 409: 507–510.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Adams RW, Aguilar JA, Atkinson KD, et al. (2009): Reversible interactions with para-hydrogen enhance NMR sensitivity by polarization transfer. Science 323: 1708–1711.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ghiani G, Laporte G & Musmanno R (2005): Introduction to Logistics Systems Planning and Control. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Wu H (Ed.) (2007): TNF Receptor Associated Factors (TRAFs). Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology (Vol. 597). New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Othieno H & Awange J (2016): Energy Resources in Northern Africa. In: Awange J (ed.) Energy Resources in Africa: Distribution, Opportunities and Challenges. Cham: Springer International Publishing 193–222.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Acta Ophthalmologica.

Blog post
Taub B (2016, October 20): Amazonian Frog Pretends To Be An Ant. IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2010): Aviation Weather: Agencies Need to Improve Performance Measurement and Fully Address Key Challenges (No. GAO-10-843). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Metcalfe AC (2017): Using Evolution as a Context for Teaching the Nature of Science to Diverse Student Populations: A High School Unit of Curriculum (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L (2006, November 5): The Roberts Court Takes On Abortion. New York Times, p. WK14. WK14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ellman 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Buchan & Parker 2007, Ellman 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Buchan & Parker 2007)
  • Three authors: (Karner, DeLong & Karl 2001)
  • Four or more authors: (Adams et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleActa Ophthalmologica
AbbreviationActa Ophthalmol.
ISSN (print)1755-375X
ISSN (online)1755-3768
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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