How to format your references using the Acta Ophthalmologica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Acta Ophthalmologica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Friedman WE (2006): Embryological evidence for developmental lability during early angiosperm evolution. Nature 441: 337–340.
A journal article with 2 authors
Trauger JT & Traub WA (2007): A laboratory demonstration of the capability to image an Earth-like extrasolar planet. Nature 446: 771–773.
A journal article with 3 authors
Seto KC, Kaufmann RK & Woodcock CE (2000): Landsat reveals China’s farmland reserves, but they’re vanishing fast. Nature 406: 121.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lim MM, Wang Z, Olazábal DE, Ren X, Terwilliger EF & Young LJ (2004): Enhanced partner preference in a promiscuous species by manipulating the expression of a single gene. Nature 429: 754–757.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Haas TC (2013): Introduction to Probability and Statistics for Ecosystem Managers. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Kryszkiewicz M, Rybinski H, Skowron A & Raś ZW (Eds.) (2011): Foundations of Intelligent Systems: 19th International Symposium, ISMIS 2011, Warsaw, Poland, June 28-30, 2011. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Vol. 6804). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Han J-M & Yi B-J (2013): An Orbital Velocity-Based Obstacle Avoidance Algorithm for Surgical Robots. In: Lee S, Cho H, Yoon K-J & Lee J (eds.) Intelligent Autonomous Systems 12: Volume 2 Proceedings of the 12th International Conference IAS-12, held June 26-29, 2012, Jeju Island, Korea, Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer 37–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Acta Ophthalmologica.

Blog post
Luntz S (2017, January 30): Adventurous Beetles Confirm A New Form Of Evolution. IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1991): Student Loans: Characteristics of Defaulted Borrowers in the Stafford Student Loan Program (No. HRD-91-82BR). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Garcia CA (2010): Tracking chemistry self-efficacy and achievement in a preparatory chemistry course (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW (2015, July 1): The Bonds That Broke Puerto Rico. New York Times, p. B1. B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Friedman 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Friedman 2006, Trauger & Traub 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Trauger & Traub 2007)
  • Three authors: (Seto, Kaufmann & Woodcock 2000)
  • Four or more authors: (Lim et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleActa Ophthalmologica
AbbreviationActa Ophthalmol.
ISSN (print)1755-375X
ISSN (online)1755-3768
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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