How to format your references using the Acta Ophthalmologica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Acta Ophthalmologica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Maziak W (2005): Global voices of science. Science in the Arab world: vision of glories beyond. Science 308: 1416–1418.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vajda V & McLoughlin S (2004): Fungal proliferation at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. Science 303: 1489.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ackman JB, Burbridge TJ & Crair MC (2012): Retinal waves coordinate patterned activity throughout the developing visual system. Nature 490: 219–225.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Eun JK, Guthrie KA, Zirpoli G & Gadi VK (2013): In situ breast cancer and microchimerism. Sci Rep 3: 2192.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chen X, Parini CG, Collins B, Yao Y & Ur Rehman M (2012): Antennas for Global Navigation Satellite Systems. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Raggi E (2011): Beginning Ubuntu Linux. (Thomas K & Vugt S van, Eds.) (Sixth Edition.). Berkeley, CA: Apress.
A chapter in an edited book
Murphy GM & Ralph N (2016): Photoprotection, Photoimmunology and Autoimmune Diseases. In: Wang SQ & Lim HW (eds.) Principles and Practice of Photoprotection. Cham: Springer International Publishing 75–93.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Acta Ophthalmologica.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015, September 25): Diesel Fumes And Your Health: VW Cover-Up Shows We Need To Test Local Cars. IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2000): Space Station: Russian Compliance With Safety Requirements (No. T-NSIAD-00-128). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Olanisa EL (2012): Mental health issues and use of health care services among older immigrant women in California (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams J (2017, July 30): The Teacher Learns She’s a Student, Too. New York Times, p. C5. C5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Maziak 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Maziak 2005, Vajda & McLoughlin 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Vajda & McLoughlin 2004)
  • Three authors: (Ackman, Burbridge & Crair 2012)
  • Four or more authors: (Eun et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleActa Ophthalmologica
AbbreviationActa Ophthalmol.
ISSN (print)1755-375X
ISSN (online)1755-3768
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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