How to format your references using the Acta Ophthalmologica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Acta Ophthalmologica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Downward J (2001): The ins and outs of signalling. Nature 411: 759–762.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nishida H & Sawada K (2001): macho-1 encodes a localized mRNA in ascidian eggs that specifies muscle fate during embryogenesis. Nature 409: 724–729.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li C, de Grijs R & Deng L (2014): The exclusion of a significant range of ages in a massive star cluster. Nature 516: 367–369.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Jin H, Rhim SH, Im J & Freeman AJ (2013): Topological oxide insulator in cubic perovskite structure. Sci Rep 3: 1651.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hossain ME (2016): Fundamentals of Drilling Engineering. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Preedy VR (Ed.) (2012): Handbook of diet, nutrition and the skin. Human Health Handbooks no. 1 (Vol. 2). Wageningen: Wageningen Academic Publishers.
A chapter in an edited book
Bromiley PA, Adams JE & Cootes TF (2016): Automatic Localisation of Vertebrae in DXA Images Using Random Forest Regression Voting. In: Vrtovec T, Yao J, Glocker B, Klinder T, Frangi A, Zheng G & Li S (eds.) Computational Methods and Clinical Applications for Spine Imaging: Third International Workshop and Challenge, CSI 2015, Held in Conjunction with MICCAI 2015, Munich, Germany, October 5, 2015, Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing 38–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Acta Ophthalmologica.

Blog post
Andrew E (2016, May 17): New Technology Can Be The Difference Between Life And Death In A Disaster. IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1974): Salary of Executive Director, National Advisory Council on Vocational Education (No. B-179188). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Contreras AG (2009): A reproductive health program for the Latino adolescent community: A grant proposal (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Longman J (2015, December 19): A Description as Enigmatic as How to Escape a Slump. New York Times, p. SP5. SP5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Downward 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Downward 2001, Nishida & Sawada 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nishida & Sawada 2001)
  • Three authors: (Li, de Grijs & Deng 2014)
  • Four or more authors: (Jin et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleActa Ophthalmologica
AbbreviationActa Ophthalmol.
ISSN (print)1755-375X
ISSN (online)1755-3768
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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