How to format your references using the Acta Ophthalmologica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Acta Ophthalmologica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lam L (2015): From physics to revolution and back. Science 348: 1170.
A journal article with 2 authors
Phipps RJ & Gaunt MJ (2009): A meta-selective copper-catalyzed C-H bond arylation. Science 323: 1593–1597.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lonsdorf EV, Eberly LE & Pusey AE (2004): Sex differences in learning in chimpanzees. Nature 428: 715–716.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bruner AG, Gullison RE, Rice RE & da Fonseca GA (2001): Effectiveness of parks in protecting tropical biodiversity. Science 291: 125–128.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bill Huitt WM (2016): Bioprocessing Piping and Equipment Design. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Fisenko AI (2016): Black-body Radiative, Thermodynamic, and Chromatic Functions: Tables in Finite Spectral Ranges. (Lemberg VF, Ed.). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Willatt JM & Cohan RH (2010): Understaging T2: Limitations of Pelvic Imaging. In: Lee CT & Wood DP (eds.) Bladder Cancer: Diagnosis, Therapeutics, and Management. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press 35–39.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Acta Ophthalmologica.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015, June 23): New Single-Dose Malaria Treatment Could Eventually Help Millions. IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1991): Aviation Safety: Problems Persist in FAA’s Inspection Program (No. RCED-92-14). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Griess JO (2010): A canine audience: The effect of Animal-Assisted Therapy on reading progress among students identified with learning disabilities (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L (2007, August 19): Another Summer, Same Dark Stage. New York Times, p. LI2. LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lam 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Lam 2015, Phipps & Gaunt 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Phipps & Gaunt 2009)
  • Three authors: (Lonsdorf, Eberly & Pusey 2004)
  • Four or more authors: (Bruner et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleActa Ophthalmologica
AbbreviationActa Ophthalmol.
ISSN (print)1755-375X
ISSN (online)1755-3768
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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