# How to format your references using the Physical Review D citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Physical Review D. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

## Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

## Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
J. A. Piccirilli, Biochemistry. Toward Understanding Self-Splicing, Science 320, 56 (2008).
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
C. Beghein and J. Trampert, Robust Normal Mode Constraints on Inner-Core Anisotropy from Model Space Search, Science 299, 552 (2003).
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
F. Carbone, O.-H. Kwon, and A. H. Zewail, Dynamics of Chemical Bonding Mapped by Energy-Resolved 4D Electron Microscopy, Science 325, 181 (2009).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
[1]
C. Beisel, A. Imhof, J. Greene, E. Kremmer, and F. Sauer, Histone Methylation by the Drosophila Epigenetic Transcriptional Regulator Ash1, Nature 419, 857 (2002).

## Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
A. H. Perera and L. J. Buse, Ecology of Wildfire Residuals in Boreal Forests (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2014).
An edited book
[1]
W. Jäger, R. Rannacher, and J. Warnatz, editors , Reactive Flows, Diffusion and Transport: From Experiments via Mathematical Modeling to Numerical Simulation and Optimization Final Report of SFB (Collaborative Research Center) 359 (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007).
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
M. Cimini, C. S. Coen, and D. Sangiorgi, Functions as Processes: Termination and the $\lambda\mu\widetilde{\mu}$ -Calculus, in Trustworthly Global Computing: 5th International Symposium, TGC 2010, Munich, Germany, February 24-26, 2010, Revised Selected Papers, edited by M. Wirsing, M. Hofmann, and A. Rauschmayer (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010), pp. 73–86.

## Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Physical Review D.

Blog post
[1]
J. Fang, This Is The World’s Last Male Northern White Rhino, https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/worlds-last-male-northern-white-rhino-has-armed-guards/.

## Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office, Information Technology Investment Management: A Framework for Assessing and Improving Process Maturity (Supersedes AIMD-10.1.23), No. GAO-04-394G, U.S. Government Printing Office, 2004.

## Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
A. Sanabria, Root Metaphor, Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, 2012.

## News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
B. Rothenberg, Nadal and Federer Steady a Collision Course, New York Times SP1 (2017).

## In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference  [1].
This sentence cites two references  [1,2].
This sentence cites four references  [1–4].