How to format your references using the Physica Medica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Physica Medica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Crawley JN. Medicine. Testing hypotheses about autism. Science 2007;318:56–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Jin Q, He SY. Role of the Hrp pilus in type III protein secretion in Pseudomonas syringae. Science 2001;294:2556–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Angell SY, Danel I, DeCock KM. Global health. Global indicators and targets for noncommunicable diseases. Science 2012;337:1456–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Saleska SR, Didan K, Huete AR, da Rocha HR. Amazon forests green-up during 2005 drought. Science 2007;318:612.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Holzer SM. Statische Beurteilung Historischer Tragwerke. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2015.
An edited book
[1]
Zanuttigh P. Time-of-Flight and Structured Light Depth Cameras: Technology and Applications. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Gil-Perotín S, García-Verdugo JM, Álvarez-Buylla A. Oncogenesis vs. Neurogenesis. In: Alvarez-Buylla A, Gil-Perotín S, editors. Identification and Characterization of Neural Progenitor Cells in the Adult Mammalian Brain, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009, p. 63–6.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Physica Medica.

Blog post
[1]
Evans K. China Plans To Open The World’s First Panda Retirement Home. IFLScience 2017. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/china-plans-to-open-the-worlds-first-panda-retirement-home/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Technology Assessment: Neutron Detectors: Alternatives to Using Helium-3. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Shafran RF. Leading Organizational Change: A Phenomenological Study of the Nonlinear Strategies Used by Female Leaders in Global Companies. Doctoral dissertation. Pepperdine University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Robertson C. No Stranger to Flooding, One Town Suffers Again. New York Times 2017:A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePhysica Medica
AbbreviationPhys. Med.
ISSN (print)1120-1797
ScopeBiophysics
General Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
General Physics and Astronomy

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