How to format your references using the European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Quinlan RA (2015) DRUG DISCOVERY. A new dawn for cataracts. Science 350:636–637
A journal article with 2 authors
Simpson GG, Dean C (2002) Arabidopsis, the Rosetta stone of flowering time? Science 296:285–289
A journal article with 3 authors
Lindenmayer DB, Laurance WF, Franklin JF (2012) Ecology. Global decline in large old trees. Science 338:1305–1306
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Rutter GM, Crain JN, Guisinger NP, et al (2007) Scattering and interference in epitaxial graphene. Science 317:219–222

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Eklund C, Marks RB, Ponnuswamy S, et al (2011) WirelessMAN®. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Presutti V, d’Amato C, Gandon F, et al (2014) The Semantic Web: Trends and Challenges: 11th International Conference, ESWC 2014, Anissaras, Crete, Greece, May 25-29, 2014. Proceedings. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
de Haas C, Ryan R (2016) Family Centered Care in a Health Care Setting. In: Rubin IL, Merrick J, Greydanus DE, Patel DR (eds) Health Care for People with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities across the Lifespan. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 49–58

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2016) Sorry Everyone, That Alien Signal Was Probably Just A “Terrestrial Disturbance.” In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1974) Need for Additional Bilingual Education Teachers and the Availability of Training Programs To Prepare Them for Classroom Service. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Luong W (2009) An identity building program for American-born children of Southeast Asian refugees. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy MJO (2015) Weekend Entertainments From the Archives of The New York Times. New York Times C29

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
AbbreviationEur. Arch. Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci.
ISSN (print)0940-1334
ISSN (online)1433-8491
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Pharmacology (medical)
Psychiatry and Mental health
Biological Psychiatry

Other styles