How to format your references using the Physica C: Superconductivity and its applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Physica C: Superconductivity and its applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Wadman, Biochemist strikes gold, Nature. 441 (2006) 689.
A journal article with 2 authors
M.J. Sheehan, E.A. Tibbetts, Specialized face learning is associated with individual recognition in paper wasps, Science. 334 (2011) 1272–1275.
A journal article with 3 authors
Q. Wu, M.S. Clark, R.D. Palmiter, Deciphering a neuronal circuit that mediates appetite, Nature. 483 (2012) 594–597.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
G. Alter, D. Heckerman, A. Schneidewind, L. Fadda, C.M. Kadie, J.M. Carlson, C. Oniangue-Ndza, M. Martin, B. Li, S.I. Khakoo, M. Carrington, T.M. Allen, M. Altfeld, HIV-1 adaptation to NK-cell-mediated immune pressure, Nature. 476 (2011) 96–100.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R.L. Mainardi, Harnessing the Power of Continuous Auditing, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2011.
An edited book
V. Degiorgio, Photonics: A Short Course, 2nd ed. 2016, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
E. Õunapuu, Teaching and Promoting Smart Internet of Things Solutions Using the Serious-Game Approach, in: D. Sharma, M. Favorskaya, L.C. Jain, R.J. Howlett (Eds.), Fusion of Smart, Multimedia and Computer Gaming Technologies: Research, Systems and Perspectives, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015: pp. 73–90.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Physica C: Superconductivity and its applications.

Blog post
J. Davis, Ravens Know When They’ve Been Cheated, And Remember Who Did It For At Least A Month, IFLScience. (2017).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Information Technology: Management Improvements Are Essential to VA’s Second Effort to Replace Its Outpatient Scheduling System, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2010.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
F.A. Aikens, An Examination of Ethical Behavior, Job Satisfaction, and Turnover Intent in Southern Ohio QSR Operations, Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Chan, BBC Publishes Pay of Top Stars, Revealing Gender and Racial Gaps, New York Times. (2017) A9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePhysica C: Superconductivity and its applications
AbbreviationPhysica C Supercond.
ISSN (print)0921-4534
ScopeEnergy Engineering and Power Technology
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Condensed Matter Physics

Other styles