How to format your references using the Communication Teacher citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Communication Teacher. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bowler, P. J. (2002). Portraits of science. Climb Chimborazo and see the world. Science (New York, N.Y.), 298(5591), 63–64.
A journal article with 2 authors
Trinkle, D. R., & Woodward, C. (2005). The chemistry of deformation: how solutes soften pure metals. Science (New York, N.Y.), 310(5754), 1665–1667.
A journal article with 3 authors
Turner, W. R., Oppenheimer, M., & Wilcove, D. S. (2009). A force to fight global warming. Nature, 462(7271), 278–279.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Yang, J., Li, J., Du, Z., Gong, Q., Teng, J., & Hong, M. (2014). Laser hybrid micro/nano-structuring of Si surfaces in air and its applications for SERS detection. Scientific Reports, 4, 6657.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
El Hami, A., & Radi, B. (2013). Uncertainty and Optimization in Structural Mechanics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Núñez, M., Nguyen, N. T., Camacho, D., & Trawiński, B. (Eds.). (2015). Computational Collective Intelligence: 7th International Conference, ICCCI 2015, Madrid, Spain, September 21-23, 2015, Proceedings, Part II (Vol. 9330). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Zlotnik, A., Zalevsky, Z., Borkowski, A., Sylman, D., Micó, V., García, J., & Javidi, B. (2011). Techniques Utilizing Diffractive Masks Having Structures with a Period Non-Limited Randomness. In Z. Zalevsky (Ed.), Super-Resolved Imaging: Geometrical and Diffraction Approaches (pp. 69–105). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Communication Teacher.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2017, May 27). If The USA Exits The Paris Agreement, This Is What Will Happen. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1991). Delays in Critical Air Traffic Control Modernization Projects Require Increased FAA Attention to Existing Systems (T-IMTEC-91-14). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Campos-Doerfler, L. (2017). The Role of Sgs1 and Exo1 in the Maintenance of Genome Stability [Doctoral dissertation]. University of South Florida.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard, B. (2017, September 14). Saudi Arabia Detains Critics of Crown Prince. New York Times, A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bowler, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Bowler, 2002; Trinkle & Woodward, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Trinkle & Woodward, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Turner et al., 2009)
  • 6 or more authors: (Yang et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleCommunication Teacher
ISSN (print)1740-4622
ISSN (online)1740-4630

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