How to format your references using the Communication Teacher citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Communication Teacher. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lisse, C. M. (2012). Astronomy. The final flight of a Sun-diving comet. Science (New York, N.Y.), 335(6066), 296–297.
A journal article with 2 authors
Day, K. P., & Fowkes, F. J. I. (2011). Microbiology. Quantifying malaria dynamics within the host. Science (New York, N.Y.), 333(6045), 943–944.
A journal article with 3 authors
Little, A. F., van Oppen, M. J. H., & Willis, B. L. (2004). Flexibility in algal endosymbioses shapes growth in reef corals. Science (New York, N.Y.), 304(5676), 1492–1494.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kim, J. J., Choi, Y., Suresh, S., & Argon, A. S. (2002). Nanocrystallization during nanoindentation of a bulk amorphous metal alloy at room temperature. Science (New York, N.Y.), 295(5555), 654–657.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Parashar, R. K. (2008). Reaction Mechanisms in Organic Synthesis. West Sussex, United Kingdom: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Bonnelle, C. (2015). Rare-Earths and Actinides in High Energy Spectroscopy. (N. Spector, Ed.). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Chittenden, F., Iancich, S., & Sloan, B. (2009). Techniques Available for Estimating the Impact of Regulations. In A. Nijsen, J. Hudson, C. Müller, K. Paridon, & R. Thurik (Eds.), Business Regulation and Public Policy: The Costs and Benefits of Compliance (pp. 1–17). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Communication Teacher.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014, December 31). Astronomers Catch Surprise “Eclipse” Of Jupiter’s Moons. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2010). Applying Agreed-Upon Procedures: Fiscal Year 2010 Highway Trust Fund Excise Taxes (No. GAO-11-121R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Heyen, C. (2015). Two predictors of smoking behaviors in the LGBTQ population: Anxiety and internalized homophobia (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2005, October 13). Justices Grapple With Whether Public Employees Enjoy Free-Speech Rights on the Job. New York Times, p. A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lisse, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Day & Fowkes, 2011; Lisse, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Day & Fowkes, 2011)
  • Three authors: (Little, van Oppen, & Willis, 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Kim, Choi, Suresh, & Argon, 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleCommunication Teacher
ISSN (print)1740-4622
ISSN (online)1740-4630

Other styles