How to format your references using the Communication Teacher citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Communication Teacher. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain, C. (2000). Global-warming sceptics left out in the cold. Nature, 403(6767), 233.
A journal article with 2 authors
Iwahara, J., & Clore, G. M. (2006). Detecting transient intermediates in macromolecular binding by paramagnetic NMR. Nature, 440(7088), 1227–1230.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wahl, E. R., Ritson, D. M., & Ammann, C. M. (2006). Comment on “Reconstructing past climate from noisy data.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 312(5773), 529; author reply 529.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Caillon, N., Severinghaus, J. P., Jouzel, J., Barnola, J.-M., Kang, J., & Lipenkov, V. Y. (2003). Timing of atmospheric CO2 and Antarctic temperature changes across termination III. Science (New York, N.Y.), 299(5613), 1728–1731.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hoschette, J. A. (2010). The Engineer’s Career Guide. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Bailey, D. H. (2016). Pi: The Next Generation: A Sourcebook on the Recent History of Pi and Its Computation (J. M. Borwein, Ed.). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Mahon, J. E. (2016). Abortion and the Right to Not Be Pregnant. In A. Fives & K. Breen (Eds.), Philosophy and Political Engagement: Reflection in the Public Sphere (pp. 57–77). Palgrave Macmillan UK.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Communication Teacher.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014, November 17). Mystery Illness That “Melts” Starfish Identified. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2006). Space Acquisitions: DOD Needs a Departmentwide Strategy for Pursuing Low-Cost, Responsive Tactical Space Capabilities (GAO-06-449). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Safarian Bahri, P. (2017). Erosion Rate Prediction Model for Levee-Floodwall Overtopping Applications in Fine-Grained Soils [Doctoral dissertation]. Southern Illinois University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY, J. C., Jr., & Baker, A. L. (2016, August 25). Quest for New Life Ends in Tangle of Gang Ties. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Macilwain, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Iwahara & Clore, 2006; Macilwain, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Iwahara & Clore, 2006)
  • Three authors: (Wahl et al., 2006)
  • 6 or more authors: (Caillon et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleCommunication Teacher
ISSN (print)1740-4622
ISSN (online)1740-4630

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