How to format your references using the Phycological Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Phycological Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sartorius, N. 2010. Short-lived campaigns are not enough.
A journal article with 2 authors
Balois, T. and Ben Amar, M. 2014. Morphology of melanocytic lesions in situ.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li, J., Sato, T. and Kageyama, A. 2002. Repeated and sudden reversals of the dipole field generated by a spherical dynamo action.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Tulk, C.A., Benmore, C.J., Urquidi, J., Klug, D.D., Neuefeind, J., Tomberli, B. and Egelstaff, P.A. 2002. Structural studies of several distinct metastable forms of amorphous ice.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Celant, G. and Broniatowski, M. 2017. Interpolation and Extrapolation Optimal Designs 2. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Yarden, A. 2015. Adapted Primary Literature: The Use of Authentic Scientific Texts in Secondary Schools. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Cammaerts, B., Bruter, M., Banaji, S., Harrison, S. and Anstead, N. 2016. Youth Participation Beyond Voting: Volunteering and Contestation. In Bruter, M., Banaji, S., Harrison, S. and Anstead, N. (Eds) Youth Participation in Democratic Life: Stories of Hope and Disillusion. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, pp. 105–32.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Phycological Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2013. Stem Cells Converted Into Lung Tissue. [updated: October 30, 2018; cited: October 30, 2018]. Available At:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1990. Effects of Airline Entry Barriers on Fares. No. T-RCED-90-62.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Umstead, H.G. 2017. Determining the Value of Outdoor Adventure Education for Educational Leaders. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S. 2013. Manifesta Curator Named.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sartorius 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Sartorius 2010; Balois & Ben Amar 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Balois & Ben Amar 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Tulk et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhycological Research
AbbreviationPhycological Res.
ISSN (print)1322-0829
ISSN (online)1440-1835
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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