How to format your references using the Phycological Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Phycological Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Huybers, P. 2006. Early Pleistocene glacial cycles and the integrated summer insolation forcing.
A journal article with 2 authors
Henderson, I.R. and Jacobsen, S.E. 2007. Epigenetic inheritance in plants.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shen, Y., Buick, R. and Canfield, D.E. 2001. Isotopic evidence for microbial sulphate reduction in the early Archaean era.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Yu, X.-Y., Meng, Q.-Q., Luo, T. et al. 2013. Facet-dependent electrochemical properties of Co3O4 nanocrystals toward heavy metal ions.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Borisenko, V.E. and Ossicini, S. 2012. What is What in the Nanoworld. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Paksoy, H.Ö. (Ed.) 2007. Thermal Energy Storage for Sustainable Energy Consumption: Fundamentals, Case Studies and Design. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Hamada, A., Esteves, S.C. and Agarwal, A. 2016. Varicocele Classification. In Esteves, S. C. and Agarwal, A. (Eds) Varicocele and Male Infertility: Current Concepts, Controversies and Consensus. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 37–43.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Phycological Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2017. Watch: Sea Lion Drags Girl Into Water In Richmond, BC. [updated: October 30, 2018; cited: October 30, 2018]. Available At:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1997. Executive Guide: Measuring Performance and Demonstrating Results of Information Technology Investments (Exposure Draft) (Superseded by AIMD-98-99). No. AIMD-97-163.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lewis, P.A. 2012. Love and hate: The study of school principals moving from job motivation to job frustration. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. 2011. For the Mets, ‘Who’s on First?’ Isn’t a Punch Line.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Huybers 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Huybers 2006; Henderson & Jacobsen 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Henderson & Jacobsen 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Yu et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhycological Research
AbbreviationPhycological Res.
ISSN (print)1322-0829
ISSN (online)1440-1835
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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