How to format your references using the Phycological Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Phycological Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Magistretti, P.J. 2009. Neuroscience. Low-cost travel in neurons.
A journal article with 2 authors
Paerl, H.W. and Huisman, J. 2008. Climate. Blooms like it hot.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ahn, K.H., Lookman, T. and Bishop, A.R. 2004. Strain-induced metal-insulator phase coexistence in perovskite manganites.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Gibbs, H.L., Sorenson, M.D., Marchetti, K., Brooke, M.D., Davies, N.B. and Nakamura, H. 2000. Genetic evidence for female host-specific races of the common cuckoo.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Spence, R. 2008. Introductory Circuits. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Chichester, West Sussex.
An edited book
Ammari, H. 2007. Polarization and Moment Tensors: With Applications to Inverse Problems and Effective Medium Theory. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Bally, V., Caramellino, L. and Cont, R. 2016. Overview. In Caramellino, L., Cont, R., Utzet, F. and Vives, J. (Eds) Stochastic Integration by Parts and Functional Itô Calculus. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 119–23.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Phycological Research.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. 2017. Physicists Test Entropy In A Non-Equilibrium System For The First Time. [updated: October 30, 2018; cited: October 30, 2018]. Available At:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2017. Information Technology: HUD Needs to Address Significant Weaknesses in Its Cost Estimating Practices. No. GAO-17-281.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Baxter, V.P. 2013. Communitarian Leadership Practice Acquisition in Educational Leadership Preparation. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W. 2017. Court Is Asked For Debt Relief By Puerto Rico.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Magistretti 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Paerl & Huisman 2008; Magistretti 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Paerl & Huisman 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Gibbs et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhycological Research
AbbreviationPhycological Res.
ISSN (print)1322-0829
ISSN (online)1440-1835
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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