How to format your references using the Phycological Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Phycological Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gupta, S. 2014. Mental health: ups and downs.
A journal article with 2 authors
Abbott, M.B. and Wolfe, A.P. 2003. Intensive pre-Incan metallurgy recorded by lake sediments from the Bolivian Andes.
A journal article with 3 authors
Horodecki, M., Oppenheim, J. and Winter, A. 2005. Partial quantum information.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Wagner, U., Gais, S., Haider, H., Verleger, R. and Born, J. 2004. Sleep inspires insight.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Owen, J.S. and Fiedler-Kelly, J. 2014. Introduction to Population Pharmacokinetic / Pharmacodynamic Analysis with Nonlinear Mixed Effects Models. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, New Jersey.
An edited book
Courneya, K.S. and Friedenreich, C.M. (Eds.) 2011. Physical Activity and Cancer. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Wang, X., Zhang, X. and Zhang, C. 2011. Study on the Application of RFID Technology in the Management System of Paper Machine’s Disassembly and Assembly. In Zhang, J. (Ed) Applied Informatics and Communication: International Conference, ICAIC 2011, Xi’an, China, August 20-21, 2011, Proceedings, Part V. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 38–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Phycological Research.

Blog post
Andrew, D. 2016. Can We Use A Simple Blood Test To Detect Cancer? [updated: October 30, 2018; cited: October 30, 2018]. Available At:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1997. [Comments on Amtrak Labor Protection Issues]. No. B-277814.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Eaglen Bertrando, S.L. 2017. Rethinking Workplace Learning in the Digital World: A Case Study of Open Badges. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, T.C. 2017. Radical Ambition.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gupta 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Abbott & Wolfe 2003; Gupta 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Abbott & Wolfe 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Wagner et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhycological Research
AbbreviationPhycological Res.
ISSN (print)1322-0829
ISSN (online)1440-1835
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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