How to format your references using the Phycological Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Phycological Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Costandi, M. 2014. Rehabilitation: machine recovery.
A journal article with 2 authors
Williams, J.H. and Friedman, W.E. 2002. Identification of diploid endosperm in an early angiosperm lineage.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gil, S., Kott, A. and Barabási, A.-L. 2014. A genetic epidemiology approach to cyber-security.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Schulz, K.G., Zondervan, I., Gerringa, L.J.A., Timmermans, K.R., Veldhuis, M.J.W. and Riebesell, U. 2004. Effect of trace metal availability on coccolithophorid calcification.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Van Der Pijl, P., Solomon, L.K. and Lokitz, J. 2016. How To Design a Better Business. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Vullo, V. 2013. Rotors: Stress Analysis and Design. Springer, Milano.
A chapter in an edited book
Gahtan, V. and Robinson, B. 2014. How to Read the Literature, Develop a Hypothesis, and Design an Experiment for Basic Science and Translational Research. In Kibbe, M. R. and LeMaire, S. A. (Eds) Success in Academic Surgery: Basic Science. Springer, London, pp. 41–9.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Phycological Research.

Blog post
Davis, J. 2015. Combination Of Two Clinically Approved Drugs Cause Brain Tumor Cells To Eat Themselves. [updated: October 30, 2018; cited: October 30, 2018]. Available At:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2014. Transportation Security Information Sharing: Results of GAO’s Survey of Stakeholder Satisfaction with TSA Products and Mechanisms (GAO-14-488SP, June 2014), an E-supplement to GAO-14-506. No. GAO-14-488SP.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Klimek, D.L. 2008. Antigone’s reach: A feminine model for today’s businesswoman. Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hussey, K. 2015. Troubling Text Before a Couple Vanished in Connecticut: ‘Did You Hurt Mom?’

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Costandi 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Williams & Friedman 2002; Costandi 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Williams & Friedman 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Schulz et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhycological Research
AbbreviationPhycological Res.
ISSN (print)1322-0829
ISSN (online)1440-1835
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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