How to format your references using the Phycological Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Phycological Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cameron, A. 2015. Eric H. Davidson (1937-2015).
A journal article with 2 authors
Macnaghten, P. and Owen, R. 2011. Environmental science: good governance for geoengineering.
A journal article with 3 authors
Westover, K.D., Bushnell, D.A. and Kornberg, R.D. 2004. Structural basis of transcription: separation of RNA from DNA by RNA polymerase II.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Pan, F., Sun, L., Kardian, D.B., Whartenby, K.A., Pardoll, D.M. and Liu, J.O. 2007. Feedback inhibition of calcineurin and Ras by a dual inhibitory protein Carabin.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Plantin, J.-C. 2014. Participatory Mapping. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Goodman, R.D. and Gorski, P.C. (Eds.) 2015. Decolonizing “Multicultural” Counseling through Social Justice. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Vázquez Álvarez, A.J. and Erwin, R.S. 2015. Noncooperative Satellite Range Scheduling. In Erwin, R. S. (Ed) An Introduction to Optimal Satellite Range Scheduling. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 77–106.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Phycological Research.

Blog post
Evans, K. 2017. Breeder Creates Perfect “Emoji” Snake After 8 Years Of Trying. [updated: October 30, 2018; cited: October 30, 2018]. Available At:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1994. NASA Procurement: Contract and Management Improvements at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. No. NSIAD-95-40.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Doss, A. 2015. Trapped within the white gaze: A DuBoisian approach to understanding the existential burden of being a black man in America. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard, B. 2016. Iran and Saudis Trade Barbs With Pilgrimage Set to Start.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cameron 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Macnaghten & Owen 2011; Cameron 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Macnaghten & Owen 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Pan et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhycological Research
AbbreviationPhycological Res.
ISSN (print)1322-0829
ISSN (online)1440-1835
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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