How to format your references using the Vibrational Spectroscopy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Vibrational Spectroscopy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P. Goymer, Sustainable ecosystems and society, Nature. 515 (2014) 49.
A journal article with 2 authors
N. Guessoum, A. Osama, Institutions: Revive universities of the Muslim world, Nature. 526 (2015) 634–636.
A journal article with 3 authors
M. Tahir, K. Sabeeh, U. Schwingenschlögl, Quantum capacitance of an ultrathin topological insulator film in a magnetic field, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 1261.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
P. Vandenkoornhuyse, S.L. Baldauf, C. Leyval, J. Straczek, J.P.W. Young, Extensive fungal diversity in plant roots, Science. 295 (2002) 2051.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
G. Morri, A. Mazza, Property Finance, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2014.
An edited book
A. Aldashev, R. Naeije, eds., Problems of High Altitude Medicine and Biology, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
C. Cristini, G. Cesa-Bianchi, Le emozioni invecchiano?, in: A. Ghilardi (Ed.), Sentire e Pensare: Emozioni e Apprendimento Fra Mente e Cervello, Springer, Milano, 2009: pp. 45–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Vibrational Spectroscopy.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Three Baby Exoplanets Have Been Imaged Directly, IFLScience. (2013). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Federal Funding Provided to 10 Police Departments for Intelligence Activities, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1975.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
R. Garcia, The California State University education doctorate: Public policy for the public good, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Brantley, A Pot of Gold Has to Be Good, Right?, New York Times. (2016) C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleVibrational Spectroscopy
AbbreviationVib. Spectrosc.
ISSN (print)0924-2031

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