How to format your references using the Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Sharon, Biochemistry. Structural MS pulls its weight, Science. 340 (2013) 1059–1060.
A journal article with 2 authors
A. Meguro, Y. Sato, Salicylic acid antagonizes abscisic acid inhibition of shoot growth and cell cycle progression in rice, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4555.
A journal article with 3 authors
B.A. Steinman, M.E. Mann, S.K. Miller, Climate change. Atlantic and Pacific multidecadal oscillations and Northern Hemisphere temperatures, Science. 347 (2015) 988–991.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
L. Wisotzki, R. Bacon, J. Brinchmann, S. Cantalupo, P. Richter, J. Schaye, K.B. Schmidt, T. Urrutia, P.M. Weilbacher, M. Akhlaghi, N. Bouché, T. Contini, B. Guiderdoni, E.C. Herenz, H. Inami, J. Kerutt, F. Leclercq, R.A. Marino, M. Maseda, A. Monreal-Ibero, T. Nanayakkara, J. Richard, R. Saust, M. Steinmetz, M. Wendt, Author Correction: Nearly all the sky is covered by Lyman-α emission around high-redshift galaxies, Nature. (2018).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A. Sobel, All for One, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2009.
An edited book
T.W. Hansen, J.B. Wagner, eds., Controlled Atmosphere Transmission Electron Microscopy: Principles and Practice, 1st ed. 2016, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
J. Wang, X. Zhang, Q. Su, Rare Earth Solar Spectral Convertor for Si Solar Cells, in: R.-S. Liu (Ed.), Phosphors, Up Conversion Nano Particles, Quantum Dots and Their Applications: Volume 2, Springer, Singapore, 2016: pp. 139–166.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications.

Blog post
K. Hamilton, These Six Utopian Cities Of The Future Will Help You Re-Imagine Life On Earth, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Space Station: Cost Control Difficulties Continue, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C.C. Mills, Olfaction and Exhibition: Assessing the Impact of Scent in Museums on Exhibit Engagement, Learning and Empathy, Doctoral dissertation, Florida Atlantic University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Vecsey, 32 Voices Louder Than Limbaugh’s, New York Times. (2009) B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePhotonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications
ISSN (print)1569-4410

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