How to format your references using the Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D.P. Tittensor, Ecology: Ecosystem vulnerability to ocean warming, Nature. 528 (2015) 43–44.
A journal article with 2 authors
J. Hirschberg, C.D. Manning, Advances in natural language processing, Science. 349 (2015) 261–266.
A journal article with 3 authors
F.D. Rossa, F. Dercole, C. Piccardi, Profiling core-periphery network structure by random walkers, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 1467.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
K. Tabata, D. Braam, S. Kushida, L. Tong, J. Kuwabara, T. Kanbara, A. Beckel, A. Lorke, Y. Yamamoto, Self-assembled conjugated polymer spheres as fluorescent microresonators, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 5902.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
K.S.N. Raju, Fluid Mechanics, Heat Transfer, and Mass Transfer, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2011.
An edited book
G. Regine, Ecocontrastografia dell’apparato urinario, Springer, Milano, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
K. Knödler, J. Poland, P. Merz, A. Zell, Using Memetic Algorithms for Optimal Calibration of Automotive Internal Combustion Engines, in: W.E. Hart, J.E. Smith, N. Krasnogor (Eds.), Recent Advances in Memetic Algorithms, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2005: pp. 87–104.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Infections Of The Mind: Why Anti-Vaxxers Just ‘Know’ They’re Right, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Next Generation Air Transportation System: Improved Risk Analysis Could Strengthen FAA’s Global Interoperability Efforts, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2015.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S.P. Kharal, Modelling Sensitization Dynamics in 5xxx Series Aluminum Alloys, Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J.S. Charkes, Scrambling to Enroll More Preschoolers, New York Times. (2009) NJ3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePhotonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications
ISSN (print)1569-4410

Other styles