How to format your references using the Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
B.K. McNab, Energy constraints on carnivore diet, Nature. 407 (2000) 584.
A journal article with 2 authors
H. Campins, C.M. Comfort, Solar system: Evaporating asteroid, Nature. 505 (2014) 487–488.
A journal article with 3 authors
D. Coumou, T. Driesner, C.A. Heinrich, The structure and dynamics of mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems, Science. 321 (2008) 1825–1828.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A.R. Pah, R. Guimerà, A.M. Mustoe, L.A.N. Amaral, Use of a global metabolic network to curate organismal metabolic networks, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 1695.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
V. Perrin, MRI Techniques, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ USA, 2013.
An edited book
A. Bobrowski, An Operator Semigroup in Mathematical Genetics, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
X. Fu, Z. Wu, G. Chen, Synchronization and Control of Hyper-Networks and Colored Networks, in: J. Lü, X. Yu, G. Chen, W. Yu (Eds.), Complex Systems and Networks: Dynamics, Controls and Applications, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2016: pp. 107–129.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications.

Blog post
K. Hamilton, Pygmy-Possums In Hibernation Can Sense Danger From Fires, IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Radio Frequencies: Earlier Coordination Could Improve System Use and Save Costs, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J.A. Smith, Functional analysis of ESAT-6 and EspB, two virulence proteins secreted by the ESX-1 system in Mycobacterium marinum, Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Crow, Taken to the Cleaners Again, New York Times. (2001) 146.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePhotonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications
ISSN (print)1569-4410

Other styles