How to format your references using the Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S. Bhattacharya, Science in court: Disease detectives, Nature. 506 (2014) 424–426.
A journal article with 2 authors
J. Ignés-Mullol, D.K. Schwartz, Shear-induced molecular precession in a hexatic Langmuir monolayer, Nature. 410 (2001) 348–351.
A journal article with 3 authors
T. Verma, N.A.M. Araújo, H.J. Herrmann, Revealing the structure of the world airline network, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 5638.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
L. Kubikova, E. Bosikova, M. Cvikova, K. Lukacova, C. Scharff, E.D. Jarvis, Basal ganglia function, stuttering, sequencing, and repair in adult songbirds, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6590.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
B. Halpert, Auditing Cloud Computing, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2011.
An edited book
J.P.W. Pluim, B. Likar, F.A. Gerritsen, eds., Biomedical Image Registration: Third International Workshop, WBIR 2006, Utrecht, The Netherlands, July 9-11, 2006. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Y. Sugawara, Y.J. Li, Y. Naitoh, M. Kageshima, Development of High-Speed Actuator for Scanning Probe Microscopy, in: T. Higuchi, K. Suzumori, S. Tadokoro (Eds.), Next-Generation Actuators Leading Breakthroughs, Springer, London, 2010: pp. 45–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications.

Blog post
T. Hale, What Is It Like To Dream If You’re Blind?, IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Highlights of a Forum: Financial Literacy: Strengthening Partnerships in Challenging Times, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2012.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M.T. Valley, Deciphering the function of granule cell interneurons in the mouse main olfactory bulb: Insights from adult neurogenesis and local-field potentials, Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Vecsey, The Champions In Verse, And With Ghosts, New York Times. (2011) SP4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePhotonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications
ISSN (print)1569-4410

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