How to format your references using the Audiology and Neurotology Extra citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Audiology and Neurotology Extra. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P: Building cooperation New York. Nature 2002;419:4–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Crone TJ, Tolstoy M: Magnitude of the 2010 Gulf of Mexico oil leak. Science 2010;330:634.
A journal article with 3 authors
Afek I, Ambar O, Silberberg Y: High-NOON states by mixing quantum and classical light. Science 2010;328:879–881.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Yoshida T, Jones LE, Ellner SP, Fussmann GF, Hairston NG Jr: Rapid evolution drives ecological dynamics in a predator-prey system. Nature 2003;424:303–306.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Juhnke GA, Granello DH, Granello PF: Suicide, Self-Injury, and Violence in the Schools, Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2010.
An edited book
Wang H, Zou L, Huang G, He J, Pang C, Zhang HL, et al., editors: Web Technologies and Applications: APWeb 2012 International Workshops: SenDe, IDP, IEKB, MBC, Kunming, China, April 11-13, 2012. Proceedings, Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Parent CI, Zhang T-Y, Meaney MJ: Epigenetics and the Environmental Regulation of Genomic Structure and Function: Implications for Health; in Sassone Corsi P, Christen Y (eds): Epigenetics, Brain and Behavior. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2012, pp 31–53.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Audiology and Neurotology Extra.

Blog post
Andrew E: Bacteria On Shoes Could Help Forensic Teams Catch Suspects [Internet]. IFLScience 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: National Public Radio, Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1984.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Waidelich LA: Identifying Leadership Potential: The Process of Principals within a Charter School Network 2012;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Coscarelli J, Ryzik M, Sisario B: Anger, Lawsuits and Inquiry Follow Music Festival’s Failure. New York Times 2017;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleAudiology and Neurotology Extra
AbbreviationAudiol. Neurotol. Extra
ISSN (online)1664-5537

Other styles