How to format your references using the Audiology and Neurotology Extra citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Audiology and Neurotology Extra. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Steed JW: Materials science. Molecular “ghosts.” Science 2002;298:976–977.
A journal article with 2 authors
Simons M, Eichmann A: Physiology. Lymphatics are in my veins. Science 2013;341:622–624.
A journal article with 3 authors
Abelson M, Baer G, Agnon A: Evidence from gabbro of the Troodos ophiolite for lateral magma transport along a slow-spreading mid-ocean ridge. Nature 2001;409:72–75.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Politi Y, Arad T, Klein E, Weiner S, Addadi L: Sea urchin spine calcite forms via a transient amorphous calcium carbonate phase. Science 2004;306:1161–1164.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
CCPS: Guidelines for Mechanical Integrity Systems, Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2006.
An edited book
Trombetta C, Liguori G, Bertolotto M, editors: Management of Gender Dysphoria: A Multidisciplinary Approach, Milano, Springer, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Kim DS, Kim T: Identities of Symmetry for the Generalized Degenerate Euler Polynomials; in Singh VK, Srivastava HM, Venturino E, Resch M, Gupta V (eds): Modern Mathematical Methods and High Performance Computing in Science and Technology: M3HPCST, Ghaziabad, India, December 2015. Singapore, Springer, 2016, pp 35–43.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Audiology and Neurotology Extra.

Blog post
Andrew D: Five Reasons Why Cutting NASA’s Climate Research Would Be A Colossal Mistake [Internet]. IFLScience 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Reengineering: Opportunities to Improve, Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Barkley WC: Mars rover - Laser focusing and optimization 2008;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg B: Murray, on a High, Raises His Sights. New York Times 2016;B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleAudiology and Neurotology Extra
AbbreviationAudiol. Neurotol. Extra
ISSN (online)1664-5537

Other styles