How to format your references using the Audiology and Neurotology Extra citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Audiology and Neurotology Extra. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lawler A: In search of Green Arabia. Science 2014;345:994–997.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wolff EW, British Antarctic Survey, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ET, UK. Ocean science. Whither Antarctic sea ice? Science 2003;302:1164.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gnone G, Moriconi T, Gambini G: Sleep behaviour: activity and sleep in dolphins. Nature 2006;441:E10-1; discussion E11.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lemmers RJLF, van der Vliet PJ, Klooster R, Sacconi S, Camaño P, Dauwerse JG, et al.: A unifying genetic model for facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy. Science 2010;329:1650–1653.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lindahl D: Multi-Family Millions, Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2008.
An edited book
Grzech A, Borzemski L, Świątek J, Wilimowska Z, editors: Information Systems Architecture and Technology: Proceedings of 36th International Conference on Information Systems Architecture and Technology – ISAT 2015 – Part II, 1st ed. 2016. Cham, Springer International Publishing, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Noor TH, Sheng QZ, Bouguettaya A: Robust and Adaptive Credibility Model; in Sheng QZ, Bouguettaya A (eds): Trust Management in Cloud Services. Cham, Springer International Publishing, 2014, pp 45–57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Audiology and Neurotology Extra.

Blog post
Hamilton K: Fukushima Disaster Gave Everyone On Earth An X-Ray Dose Of Radiation [Internet]. IFLScience 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Undergraduate Helicopter Pilot Training: Consolidation Could Yield Significant Savings, Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1980.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sheldon A: The impact of power restoration and narcissism on aggression 2010;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K: Students Take On Whooshing Traffic. New York Times 2001;144.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleAudiology and Neurotology Extra
AbbreviationAudiol. Neurotol. Extra
ISSN (online)1664-5537

Other styles