How to format your references using the Audiology and Neurotology Extra citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Audiology and Neurotology Extra. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Valente TW: Network interventions. Science 2012;337:49–53.
A journal article with 2 authors
McAdams HH, Shapiro L: A bacterial cell-cycle regulatory network operating in time and space. Science 2003;301:1874–1877.
A journal article with 3 authors
Prins MW, Welters WJ, Weekamp JW: Fluid control in multichannel structures by electrocapillary pressure. Science 2001;291:277–280.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Giacco F, Ciamarra MP, Saggese L, de Arcangelis L, Lippiello E: Non-monotonic dependence of the friction coefficient on heterogeneous stiffness. Sci Rep 2014;4:6772.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Safari M, Ariff M, Mohamad S: Sukuk Securities, Singapore, John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd, 2014.
An edited book
Magnani L, Casadio C, editors: Model-Based Reasoning in Science and Technology: Logical, Epistemological, and Cognitive Issues, Cham, Springer International Publishing, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Johnson RG: There and Back Again – Andrew Booth, a British Computer Pioneer, and his Interactions with US and Other Contemporaries; in Tatnall A, Leslie C (eds): International Communities of Invention and Innovation: IFIP WG 9.7 International Conference on the History of Computing, HC 2016, Brooklyn, NY, USA, May 25-29, 2016, Revised Selected Papers. Cham, Springer International Publishing, 2016, pp 58–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Audiology and Neurotology Extra.

Blog post
Fang J: What Can Rats Wearing Jackets Tell Us About Men Who Love Lingerie? [Internet]. IFLScience 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Federal Agencies’ Contracting for Research and Development in the Private, Profitmaking Sector, Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1977.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Parisi J: Correlation of Conditional Admittance and Student Achievement in an Undergraduate Higher Education Setting 2012;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L: In Death Row Case, Justices Order Retrial Over Evidence. New York Times 2006;A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleAudiology and Neurotology Extra
AbbreviationAudiol. Neurotol. Extra
ISSN (online)1664-5537

Other styles