How to format your references using the Audiology and Neurotology Extra citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Audiology and Neurotology Extra. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P: Corridor at the crossroads: Michigan. Nature 2002;420:4–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Anderson CA, Bushman BJ: Psychology. The effects of media violence on society. Science 2002;295:2377–2379.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ozaki M, Kato J-I, Kawata S: Surface-plasmon holography with white-light illumination. Science 2011;332:218–220.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lo B, Parham L, Cedars M, Fisher S, Gates E, Giudice L, et al.: Research ethics. NIH guidelines for stem cell research and gamete donors. Science 2010;327:962–963.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wexler S, Shaffer J, Cotgreave A: The Big Book of Dashboards, Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2017.
An edited book
Papadopoulos GA, Wojtkowski W, Wojtkowski G, Wrycza S, Zupancic J, editors: Information Systems Development: Towards a Service Provision Society, Boston, MA, Springer US, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Chaloupek G: Emancipation of the Peasantry in Lower Austria: The Economists’ Views, the Role of the Estates, and the Revolution of 1848; in Backhaus JG (ed): The Liberation of the Serfs: The Economics of Unfree Labor. New York, NY, Springer, 2012, pp 19–31.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Audiology and Neurotology Extra.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J: US Astronaut Scott Kelly Breaks Record For Most Time In Space [Internet]. IFLScience 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Aviation Safety: FAA Needs to Strengthen the Management of Its Designee Programs, Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Huger Marsh DP: Perspectives of disciplinary problems and practices in elementary schools 2012;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg B: A Romance With Long Distances. New York Times 2017;C10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleAudiology and Neurotology Extra
AbbreviationAudiol. Neurotol. Extra
ISSN (online)1664-5537

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