How to format your references using the Audiology and Neurotology Extra citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Audiology and Neurotology Extra. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bruins HJ: Anthropology. Dating Pharaonic Egypt. Science 2010;328:1489–1490.
A journal article with 2 authors
Clarke CF, Allan CM: Biochemistry: Unexpected role for vitamin B2. Nature 2015;522:427–428.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kennedy HJ, Crawford AC, Fettiplace R: Force generation by mammalian hair bundles supports a role in cochlear amplification. Nature 2005;433:880–883.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Brass AL, Dykxhoorn DM, Benita Y, Yan N, Engelman A, Xavier RJ, et al.: Identification of host proteins required for HIV infection through a functional genomic screen. Science 2008;319:921–926.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Maude D: Global Private Banking and Wealth Management, Oxford, UK, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2006.
An edited book
Delgado A, editor: Technoscience and Citizenship: Ethics and Governance in the Digital Society, Cham, Springer International Publishing, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Kuo PS, Fejer MM: Microstructured Semiconductors for Mid-Infrared Nonlinear Optics; in Ebrahim-Zadeh M, Sorokina IT (eds): Mid-Infrared Coherent Sources and Applications. Dordrecht, Springer Netherlands, 2008, pp 149–168.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Audiology and Neurotology Extra.

Blog post
Andrew E: How Does Household Mould Affect Your Health? [Internet]. IFLScience 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Higher Education: Challenges in Attracting International Students to the United States and Implications for Global Competitiveness, Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mullican CD: Multiple Intelligences in the Text: Examining the Presence of Multiple Intelligences Tasks in the Annotated Teacher’s Editions of Four High School United States History Textbooks 2012;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G: The Daddy of All Rivals: Martinez Is Back. New York Times 2009;B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleAudiology and Neurotology Extra
AbbreviationAudiol. Neurotol. Extra
ISSN (online)1664-5537

Other styles