How to format your references using the Audiology and Neurotology Extra citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Audiology and Neurotology Extra. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cyranoski D: Winning universities set out to fulfil Japan’s plans for excellence. Nature 2002;419:547.
A journal article with 2 authors
Houghton M, Abrignani S: Prospects for a vaccine against the hepatitis C virus. Nature 2005;436:961–966.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shalm LK, Adamson RBA, Steinberg AM: Squeezing and over-squeezing of triphotons. Nature 2009;457:67–70.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Scantlebury M, Speakman JR, Oosthuizen MK, Roper TJ, Bennett NC: Energetics reveals physiologically distinct castes in a eusocial mammal. Nature 2006;440:795–797.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Davis RA: Demand-Driven Inventory Optimization and Replenishment, Hoboken, New Jersey, USA, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2015.
An edited book
Meersman R, Tari Z, editors: On the Move to Meaningful Internet Systems: OTM 2008: OTM 2008 Confederated International Conferences, CoopIS, DOA, GADA, IS, and ODBASE 2008, Monterrey, Mexico, November 9-14, 2008, Proceedings, Part I, Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Heilmann C, Francis N: Retrieving and Displaying Content with Rest and Ajax; in Francis MN (ed): Web Development Solutions: Ajax, APIs, Libraries, and Hosted Services Made Easy. Berkeley, CA, Apress, 2007, pp 95–121.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Audiology and Neurotology Extra.

Blog post
Fang J: Black Holes May Collapse Into Their Exact Opposites: White Holes [Internet]. IFLScience 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Flaws in Controls Over the Supplemental Security Income Computerized System Cause Millions in Erroneous Payments, Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1979.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Carter IM: The discourse of the divine: Radical traditions of Black feminism, musicking, and myth within the Black public sphere (Civil Rights to the present) 2015;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gates A: A Showman, His Stage Life and His Unhappy End. New York Times 2017;C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleAudiology and Neurotology Extra
AbbreviationAudiol. Neurotol. Extra
ISSN (online)1664-5537

Other styles