How to format your references using the Photonic Network Communications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Photonic Network Communications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Laursen, L.: Botany: The cultivation of weed. Nature. 525, S4-5 (2015)
A journal article with 2 authors
Harper, N.S., McAlpine, D.: Optimal neural population coding of an auditory spatial cue. Nature. 430, 682–686 (2004)
A journal article with 3 authors
Engler, H.S., Spencer, K.C., Gilbert, L.E.: Preventing cyanide release from leaves. Nature. 406, 144–145 (2000)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mitro, N., Mak, P.A., Vargas, L., Godio, C., Hampton, E., Molteni, V., Kreusch, A., Saez, E.: The nuclear receptor LXR is a glucose sensor. Nature. 445, 219–223 (2007)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Neupert, R.: French Animation History. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK (2011)
An edited book
Nishida, T.: Conversational Informatics: A Data-Intensive Approach with Emphasis on Nonverbal Communication. Springer Japan, Tokyo (2014)
A chapter in an edited book
Cruse, H., Dürr, V., Schilling, M., Schmitz, J.: A Bottom-Up Approach for Cognitive Control. In: Arena, P. and Patanè, L. (eds.) Spatial Temporal Patterns for Action-Oriented Perception in Roving Robots. pp. 179–218. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2009)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Photonic Network Communications.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J.: SpaceX Will Fly A Reusable Rocket For The First Time Later This Year


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Audit by the District of Columbia’s Office of Municipal Audit and Inspection of the Expenditure of Funds by the District of Columbia Public Schools During Fiscal Years 1970 and 1971. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1973)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Coyle, M.: Pre-Service School Counselor’s Perception of Professional Identity Development During Internship, (2017)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L.: Justices, 5 to 4, Overturn 3 Texas Death Sentences, (2007)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePhotonic Network Communications
ISSN (print)1387-974X
ISSN (online)1572-8188
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Hardware and Architecture
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

Other styles