How to format your references using the Photonic Network Communications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Photonic Network Communications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Karp, P.D.: Pathway databases: a case study in computational symbolic theories. Science. 293, 2040–2044 (2001)
A journal article with 2 authors
Wei, H.-R., Deng, F.-G.: Scalable quantum computing based on stationary spin qubits in coupled quantum dots inside double-sided optical microcavities. Sci. Rep. 4, 7551 (2014)
A journal article with 3 authors
Zheng, R.-L., Zhang, H., Jiang, W.-L.: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha 308G>A polymorphism and risk of rheumatic heart disease: a meta-analysis. Sci. Rep. 4, 4731 (2014)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Okamoto, H., Fukushima, M., Teismann, H., Lagemann, L., Kitahara, T., Inohara, H., Kakigi, R., Pantev, C.: Constraint-induced sound therapy for sudden sensorineural hearing loss--behavioral and neurophysiological outcomes. Sci. Rep. 4, 3927 (2014)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Moritz, F.G.: Electromechanical Motion Systems. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester, UK (2013)
An edited book
Kreysa, G., Ota, K.-I., Savinell, R.F. eds: Encyclopedia of Applied Electrochemistry. Springer, New York, NY (2014)
A chapter in an edited book
Bauer, L., Henkel, J.: The RISPP Run-Time System. In: Henkel, J. (ed.) Run-time Adaptation for Reconfigurable Embedded Processors. pp. 55–124. Springer, New York, NY (2011)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Photonic Network Communications.

Blog post
Andrew, D.: Is Cannabis Really Getting Stronger?,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: State of the Airline Industry: Strategies for Addressing Financial and Competition Problems. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1993)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wood, E.D.: A Study of the Effect of Grouping Students and Results on the Ohio Achievement Assessment for Reading, (2017)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leland, W. by J.: Silence Is Golden, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePhotonic Network Communications
ISSN (print)1387-974X
ISSN (online)1572-8188
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Hardware and Architecture
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

Other styles