How to format your references using the Photonic Network Communications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Photonic Network Communications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P.: Taking stock of biotech jobs. Nature. 417, 3 (2002)
A journal article with 2 authors
Blagosklonny, M.V., Pardee, A.B.: Conceptual biology: unearthing the gems. Nature. 416, 373 (2002)
A journal article with 3 authors
Ganguly-Fitzgerald, I., Donlea, J., Shaw, P.J.: Waking experience affects sleep need in Drosophila. Science. 313, 1775–1781 (2006)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Cottrell, R.D., Tarduno, J.A., Sager, W.W., Koppers, A.A.: Late cretaceous true polar wander: not so fast. Science. 288, 2283a (2000)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nathanail, C.P., Bardos, R.P.: Reclamation of Contaminated Land. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2005)
An edited book
Ahmad, A. ed: Breast Cancer Metastasis and Drug Resistance: Progress and Prospects. Springer, New York, NY (2013)
A chapter in an edited book
Talreja, R.: Analysis of Failure in Composite Structures. In: Altenbach, H. and Sadowski, T. (eds.) Failure and Damage Analysis of Advanced Materials. pp. 255–278. Springer, Vienna (2015)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Photonic Network Communications.

Blog post
Andrew, D.: Genetic Studies Reveal Diversity Of Early Human Populations – And Pin Down When We Left Africa,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Customs Automation: Observations on Selected Automated Commercial System Modules. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1988)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Subbarao, S.: An 8-PSK super regenerative receiver: Design and simulation, (2015)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander, S.: MORE 65-M.P.H. ZONES, (2001)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePhotonic Network Communications
ISSN (print)1387-974X
ISSN (online)1572-8188
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Hardware and Architecture
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

Other styles