How to format your references using the Photonic Network Communications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Photonic Network Communications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kenyon, C.J.: The genetics of ageing. Nature. 464, 504–512 (2010)
A journal article with 2 authors
Giardina, C.P., Ryan, M.G.: Evidence that decomposition rates of organic carbon in mineral soil do not vary with temperature. Nature. 404, 858–861 (2000)
A journal article with 3 authors
Dickinson, D.J., Nelson, W.J., Weis, W.I.: A polarized epithelium organized by beta- and alpha-catenin predates cadherin and metazoan origins. Science. 331, 1336–1339 (2011)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Dillehay, T.D., Rossen, J., Andres, T.C., Williams, D.E.: Preceramic adoption of peanut, squash, and cotton in northern Peru. Science. 316, 1890–1893 (2007)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fiorenzani, S., Ravelli, S., Edoli, E.: The Handbook of Energy Trading. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Chichester, West Sussex, UK (2012)
An edited book
Przytycka, T.M. ed: Research in Computational Molecular Biology: 19th Annual International Conference, RECOMB 2015, Warsaw, Poland, April 12-15, 2015, Proceedings. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2015)
A chapter in an edited book
Cheng, J., Smith, L.P.: Airway and Aerodigestive Tract. In: Cheng, J. and Bent, J.P. (eds.) Endoscopic Atlas of Pediatric Otolaryngology. pp. 39–59. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2016)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Photonic Network Communications.

Blog post
Hale, T.: Hikers Film A Beautiful Spinning Ice Disk On A Frozen River


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Surface Transportation Programs: Proposals Highlight Key Issues and Challenges in Restructuring the Programs. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2008)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schlumbrecht, C.E.: Do Negative Experiences Influence Substance Use in Adolescent Males and Females?, (2015)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
David Goodman, J., White, R.: 2nd Victim Found in Rubble of Brooklyn Building That Exploded, (2015)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePhotonic Network Communications
ISSN (print)1387-974X
ISSN (online)1572-8188
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Hardware and Architecture
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

Other styles