How to format your references using the Government and Opposition citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Government and Opposition. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hoogland JL (2013) Prairie Dogs Disperse When All Close Kin Have Disappeared. Science (New York, N.Y.) 339(6124), 1205–1207.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jewitt DC and Luu J (2004) Crystalline Water Ice on the Kuiper Belt Object (50000) Quaoar. Nature 432(7018), 731–733.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tang C, Schwieters CD, and Clore GM (2007) Open-to-Closed Transition in Apo Maltose-Binding Protein Observed by Paramagnetic NMR. Nature 449(7165), 1078–1082.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Seo J-S et al. (2013) Solution-Processed Flexible Fluorine-Doped Indium Zinc Oxide Thin-Film Transistors Fabricated on Plastic Film at Low Temperature. Scientific Reports 3, 2085.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kramer-Moore D and Moore M (2012) Destructive Myths in Family Therapy. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Fischer V (2016) Quantization on Nilpotent Lie Groups. (M. Ruzhansky, Ed.) (1st ed. 2016, Vol. 314). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Kim R and Albert LR (2015) Context of Elementary Mathematics Education in South Korea. In L R Albert (ed.), Mathematics Teaching and Learning: South Korean Elementary Teachers’ Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching. Cham: Springer International Publishing, pp. 49–61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Government and Opposition.

Blog post
Luntz S (2015, September 2) Coral Reefs Need Cleaning Too. (accessed 30 October 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1988) ADP Budget Analysis: SSA’s Information Systems Funding for Fiscal Years 1988 and 1989 (No. IMTEC-88-49). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lee AM (2010) Examining the socially responsible leadership development outcomes of study abroad experiences for college seniors (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Friel B (2010, November 14) Where Will the G.O.P. Go Digging? New York Times, p. WK9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hoogland 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Hoogland 2013; Jewitt and Luu 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jewitt and Luu 2004)
  • Three authors: (Tang, Schwieters, and Clore 2007)
  • 6 or more authors: (Seo et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleGovernment and Opposition
ISSN (print)0017-257X
ISSN (online)1477-7053

Other styles