How to format your references using the Government and Opposition citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Government and Opposition. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bertone G (2010) The moment of truth for WIMP dark matter Nature 468(7322), 389–393.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ticozzi F and Viola L (2014) Quantum resources for purification and cooling: fundamental limits and opportunities Scientific Reports 4, 5192.
A journal article with 3 authors
Swan A, Cockerill M, and Sipp D (2013) Advocacy: How to hasten open access Nature 495(7442), 442–443.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Widmer C et al. (2014) Further improvements to linear mixed models for genome-wide association studies Scientific Reports 4, 6874.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Casadella V, Liu Z, and Uzunidis D (2015) Innovation Capabilities and Economic Development in Open Economies. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Sigalotti LDG, Klapp J, and Sira E (eds.) (2014) Computational and Experimental Fluid Mechanics with Applications to Physics, Engineering and the Environment. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Cardellini V et al. (2012) On Guaranteeing Global Dependability Properties in Collaborative Business Process Management In C A Ardagna et al. (eds.), Business System Management and Engineering: From Open Issues to Applications. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 48–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Government and Opposition.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015, June 12) Animation Shows 550 Million Years Of Human Evolution In Seconds. (accessed 30 October 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2002) Aviation Security: Transportation Security Administration Faces Immediate and Long-Term Challenges (No. GAO-02-971T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kurum M (2009) L-band estimation of forest canopy attenuation by a time-domain analysis of radar backscatter response (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dominus S (2014, January 26) The Sexual Healer New York Times, p. ST1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bertone 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Bertone 2010; Ticozzi and Viola 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ticozzi and Viola 2014)
  • Three authors: (Swan, Cockerill, and Sipp 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Widmer et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleGovernment and Opposition
ISSN (print)0017-257X
ISSN (online)1477-7053

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