How to format your references using the Government and Opposition citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Government and Opposition. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ruiz J (2014) The Early Heat Loss Evolution of Mars and Their Implications for Internal and Environmental History. Scientific Reports 4, 4338.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ellington AD and Bull JJ (2005) Evolution. Changing the Cofactor Diet of an Enzyme. Science (New York, N.Y.) 310(5747), 454–455.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cohen IG, Savulescu J, and Adashi EY (2015) Medicine. Transatlantic Lessons in Regulation of Mitochondrial Replacement Therapy. Science (New York, N.Y.) 348(6231), 178–180.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yeritsyan H et al. (2013) Radiation-Modified Natural Zeolites for Cleaning Liquid Nuclear Waste (Irradiation against Radioactivity). Scientific Reports 3, 2900.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sinaiski EG (2011) Hydromechanics. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Welfens PJJ et al. (eds.) (2009) EU - Asean: Facing Economic Globalisation. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Beckerich J-M et al. (2015) Sulfur Metabolism in Hemiascomycetes Yeast. In L J De Kok et al. (eds.), Molecular Physiology and Ecophysiology of Sulfur. Cham: Springer International Publishing, pp. 49–63.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Government and Opposition.

Blog post
Hale T (2015, November 12) Watch This Homemade Electromagnetic Gun Vaporize A Piggybank. (accessed 30 October 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2001) VA Information Technology: Important Initiatives Begun, Yet Serious Vulnerabilities Persist (No. GAO-01-550T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nersisyan HA (2017) Armenian American Student Perceptions of Campus Climate: Examining the Conditions That Support or Inhibit Their College Experience (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K (2008, September 14) Saturday Bustle. New York Times, p. NJ16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ruiz 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Ellington and Bull 2005; Ruiz 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ellington and Bull 2005)
  • Three authors: (Cohen, Savulescu, and Adashi 2015)
  • 6 or more authors: (Yeritsyan et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleGovernment and Opposition
ISSN (print)0017-257X
ISSN (online)1477-7053

Other styles