How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of Cardiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of Cardiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Theobald DL. A formal test of the theory of universal common ancestry. Nature. 2010;465(7295):219-222.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gombosi TI, Ingersoll AP. Saturn: atmosphere, ionosphere, and magnetosphere. Science. 2010;327(5972):1476-1479.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang YG, Pagani M, Liu Z. Response to Comment on “A 12-million-year temperature history of the tropical Pacific Ocean.” Science. 2014;346(6216):1467.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhou Y, Li S, Zhou W, Zu X, Gao F. Evidencing the existence of intrinsic half-metallicity and ferromagnetism in zigzag gallium sulfide nanoribbons. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5773.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kulaev IS, Vagabov VM, Kulakovskaya TV. The Biochemistry of Inorganic Polyphosphates. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2005.
An edited book
Rocca SRD, ed. Typed Lambda Calculi and Applications: 8th International Conference,TLCA 2007, Paris, France,June 26-28, 2007. Proceedings. Vol 4583. Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Keyes CLM, Fredrickson BL, Park N. Positive Psychology and the Quality of Life. In: Land KC, Michalos AC, Sirgy MJ, eds. Handbook of Social Indicators and Quality of Life Research. Springer Netherlands; 2012:99-112.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of Cardiology.

Blog post
Fang J. Planets With A Companion Have A Better Chance Of Harbouring Life. IFLScience. Published August 1, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. FAA Budget: 1991 Funding Request for Computers and Communications Can Be Reduced. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vega Aguirre JC. Study of Small Business Leadership as a Result of the North American Free Trade Agreement. Doctoral dissertation. University of Phoenix; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Friedman L, Schwartz J. Warm Gulf Fuels the Rain and Gives It Nowhere to Go. New York Times. August 28, 2017:A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of Cardiology
AbbreviationCan. J. Cardiol.
ISSN (print)0828-282X
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Other styles