How to format your references using the Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
K. Powell, The yeast is rising, Nature. 429 (2004) 224–225.
A journal article with 2 authors
R. Imondi, J.B. Thomas, Neuroscience. The ups and downs of Wnt signaling, Science. 302 (2003) 1903–1904.
A journal article with 3 authors
F. Catteruccia, H.C.J. Godfray, A. Crisanti, Impact of genetic manipulation on the fitness of Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes, Science. 299 (2003) 1225–1227.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Y. Sato, M. Iketani, Y. Kurihara, M. Yamaguchi, N. Yamashita, F. Nakamura, Y. Arie, T. Kawasaki, T. Hirata, T. Abe, H. Kiyonari, S.M. Strittmatter, Y. Goshima, K. Takei, Cartilage acidic protein-1B (LOTUS), an endogenous Nogo receptor antagonist for axon tract formation, Science. 333 (2011) 769–773.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R.E. Wubbolding, Reality Therapy and Self-Evaluation, American Counseling Association, Alexandria, VA, 2017.
An edited book
S.P. Fekete, ed., Algorithmic Aspects of Wireless Sensor Networks: Fourth International Workshop, ALGOSENSORS 2008, Reykjavik, Iceland, July 2008. Revised Selected Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
J.A. Dator, J.A. Sweeney, A.M. Yee, Communication Technology in the Extended Present and Futures, in: J.A. Sweeney, A.M. Yee (Eds.), Mutative Media: Communication Technologies and Power Relations in the Past, Present, and Futures, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015: pp. 107–132.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy.

Blog post
A. Carpineti, We Now Know Why Pluto’s Moon Charon Has A Large Red Spot, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Performance and Accountability Highlights Fiscal Year 2006, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. Fouts, A mental health outreach program for adolescent gang members and at-risk youth: A grant writing project, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S.M. Nir, M. Haag, Charter Bus Slams Into a City Bus at a Busy Queens Intersection, Killing 3, New York Times. (2017) A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePhotodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
AbbreviationPhotodiagnosis Photodyn. Ther.
ISSN (print)1572-1000
Pharmacology (medical)

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