How to format your references using the Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P.A. Barker, Atmospheric science. The monsoon’s past, Science. 316 (2007) 1295–1296.
A journal article with 2 authors
I. Salazar-Ciudad, J. Jernvall, A computational model of teeth and the developmental origins of morphological variation, Nature. 464 (2010) 583–586.
A journal article with 3 authors
D.M. Tex, I. Kamiya, Y. Kanemitsu, Control of hot-carrier relaxation for realizing ideal quantum-dot intermediate-band solar cells, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4125.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
P. Shaw, D. Greenstein, J. Lerch, L. Clasen, R. Lenroot, N. Gogtay, A. Evans, J. Rapoport, J. Giedd, Intellectual ability and cortical development in children and adolescents, Nature. 440 (2006) 676–679.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
G. Warnock, M. Ghafary, G. Shaheen, Alcatel-Lucent Service Routing Architect (SRA) Self-Study Guide, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Indianapolis, IN, USA, 2015.
An edited book
D. Crisan, ed., Stochastic Analysis 2010, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
W. Haberl, M. Herrmannsdoerfer, S. Kugele, M. Tautschnig, M. Wechs, Seamless Model-Driven Development Put into Practice, in: T. Margaria, B. Steffen (Eds.), Leveraging Applications of Formal Methods, Verification, and Validation: 4th International Symposium on Leveraging Applications, ISoLA 2010, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, October 18-21, 2010, Proceedings, Part I, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010: pp. 18–32.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy.

Blog post
B. Taub, Scientists Can Now Measure The “Mystical” Effects Of Magic Mushrooms, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Army Accounting Adjustments--Tank-Automotive Command, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S.K. Voma, Design of Power Management Circuit for Energy Harvesting Applications, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Brantley, Theater; Song, Dance and the Devil, New York Times. (2016) AR6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePhotodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
AbbreviationPhotodiagnosis Photodyn. Ther.
ISSN (print)1572-1000
Pharmacology (medical)

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