How to format your references using the Arthropod Structure and Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Arthropod Structure and Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Horby, P., 2013. H7N9 is a virus worth worrying about. Nature 496, 399.
A journal article with 2 authors
Thiel, P.A., Dubois, J.M., 2000. Quasicrystals. Electrons in a strange sea. Nature 406, 570–1, 573.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cho, Y., Lee, J.B., Hong, J., 2014. Controlled release of an anti-cancer drug from DNA structured nano-films. Sci. Rep. 4, 4078.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Michel, F.M., Ehm, L., Antao, S.M., Lee, P.L., Chupas, P.J., Liu, G., Strongin, D.R., Schoonen, M.A.A., Phillips, B.L., Parise, J.B., 2007. The structure of ferrihydrite, a nanocrystalline material. Science 316, 1726–1729.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lau, J.Y.F., 2011. An Introduction to Critical Thinking and Creativity. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Orailoglu, A., Ugurdag, H.F., Silveira, L.M., Margala, M., Reis, R. (Eds.), 2015. VLSI-SoC: At the Crossroads of Emerging Trends: 21st IFIP WG 10.5/IEEE International Conference on Very Large Scale Integration, VLSI-SoC 2013, Istanbul, Turkey, October 6-9, 2013, Revised Selected Papers, 1st ed. 2015. ed, IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Stober, T., Hansmann, U., 2010. Tooling, in: Hansmann, U. (Ed.), Agile Software Development: Best Practices for Large Software Development Projects. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 61–73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Arthropod Structure and Development.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Titan Smells Like Gasoline And Farts [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2009. Next Generation Air Transportation System: FAA Faces Challenges in Responding to Task Force Recommendations (No. GAO-10-188T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hartley, D.L., 2010. Transnational jazz and blues: Aural aesthetics and African diasporic fiction (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kovaleski, S.F., Flegenheimer, M., 2014. Christie Allies Joked of Disrupting Traffic at a Rabbi’s House. New York Times A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Horby, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Horby, 2013; Thiel and Dubois, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Thiel and Dubois, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Michel et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleArthropod Structure and Development
ISSN (print)1467-8039

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