How to format your references using the Arthropod Structure and Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Arthropod Structure and Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nicholson, D.W., 2000. From bench to clinic with apoptosis-based therapeutic agents. Nature 407, 810–816.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lee, L.P., Szema, R., 2005. Inspirations from biological optics for advanced photonic systems. Science 310, 1148–1150.
A journal article with 3 authors
Houlié, N., Dreger, D., Kim, A., 2014. GPS source solution of the 2004 Parkfield earthquake. Sci. Rep. 4, 3646.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Varpula, A., Laakso, S.J., Havia, T., Kyynäräinen, J., Prunnila, M., 2014. Harvesting vibrational energy using material work functions. Sci. Rep. 4, 6799.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zhong, Q.-C., Hornik, T., 2012. Control of Power Inverters in Renewable Energy and Smart Grid Integration. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Chichester, West Sussex, United Kingdom.
An edited book
Tuniz, C., 2010. I lettori di ossa, I blu. Springer, Milano.
A chapter in an edited book
Silva, F.A.N.G., Barbato, C.N., Santos, R.D., de Almeida, D.S.G., Sampaio, J.A., Medeiros, M.E., Garrido, F.M.S., 2016. Mechanochemical Activation of Bauxite, in: Suarez, C.E. (Ed.), Light Metals 2012. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 27–32.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Arthropod Structure and Development.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2015. Just One Antibiotic Treatment Can Alter Your Gut Microbiome For A Year [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1998. Core Competencies in Financial Management for Information Technology Personnel Implementing Financial Systems in the Federal Government (No. JFMIP-ET-98-2). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Byrd, M.L., 2012. Investigating an Afterschool Program for Black Teenage Males Designed to Increase Self-Efficacy (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Powell, M., 2017. An Athlete of His Time, Painted as a Top Villain. New York Times B8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nicholson, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Lee and Szema, 2005; Nicholson, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lee and Szema, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Varpula et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleArthropod Structure and Development
ISSN (print)1467-8039

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