How to format your references using the Arthropod Structure and Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Arthropod Structure and Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Katsnelson, A., 2015. Cosmetics: Molecular beauty. Nature 526, S4-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Eaves, A.A., Palmer, A.R., 2003. Reproduction: widespread cloning in echinoderm larvae. Nature 425, 146.
A journal article with 3 authors
van Den Brink, G.R., de Santa Barbara, P., Roberts, D.J., 2001. Development. Epithelial cell differentiation--a Mather of choice. Science 294, 2115–2116.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Cao, A., Dickrell, P.L., Sawyer, W.G., Ghasemi-Nejhad, M.N., Ajayan, P.M., 2005. Super-compressible foamlike carbon nanotube films. Science 310, 1307–1310.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Helsel, D.R., 2011. Statistics for Censored Environmental Data Using Minitab® and R. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Sharma, J.N. (Ed.), 2014. Recent Developments in the Regulation of Kinins, Progress in Drug Research. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Galazka-Friedman, J., Friedman, A., Bauminger, E.R., 2009. Iron in the brain, in: Kuzmann, E., Lázár, K. (Eds.), ISIAME 2008: Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Industrial Applications of the Mössbauer Effect (ISIAME 2008) Held in Budapest, Hungary, 17–22 August 2008. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 31–37.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Arthropod Structure and Development.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. How We Can Break Free From Sexism In Science [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1980. Use of Computers by Firms Providing Architect-Engineer Services to Federal Agencies (No. LCD-81-2). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Avila, B., 2013. Comparison of paternal and maternal involvement in a government funded home-based intervention program: A multivariate analysis of parent gender, child gender and age of the child (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Branch, J., 2017. Even in a Dog Doping Scandal, a Cry of Sabotage. New York Times B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Katsnelson, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Eaves and Palmer, 2003; Katsnelson, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Eaves and Palmer, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Cao et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleArthropod Structure and Development
ISSN (print)1467-8039

Other styles