How to format your references using the Arthropod Structure and Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Arthropod Structure and Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Spurgeon, D., 2003. Scientists call for Canada to boost polar-shelf funding. Nature 421, 464.
A journal article with 2 authors
Du, C., Xiao, M., 2014. Cu2O nanoparticles synthesis by microplasma. Sci. Rep. 4, 7339.
A journal article with 3 authors
Xuereb, A., Ulbricht, H., Paternostro, M., 2013. Optomechanical interface for probing matter-wave coherence. Sci. Rep. 3, 3378.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ying, Q.-L., Wray, J., Nichols, J., Batlle-Morera, L., Doble, B., Woodgett, J., Cohen, P., Smith, A., 2008. The ground state of embryonic stem cell self-renewal. Nature 453, 519–523.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gamenara, D., Seoane, G.A., Saenz-Méndez, P., de María, P.D., 2012. Redox Biocatalysis. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Landoni, G., Mucchetti, M., Zangrillo, A., Bellomo, R. (Eds.), 2015. Reducing Mortality in Critically Ill Patients. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Andersen, P.H., 2012. Participation in Innovation Communities: Strategies and Contingencies, in: Bøllingtoft, A., Donaldson, L., Huber, G.P., Håkonsson, D.D., Snow, C.C. (Eds.), Collaborative Communities of Firms: Purpose, Process, and Design, Information and Organization Design Series. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 59–73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Arthropod Structure and Development.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2015. New Evidence Suggests Tyrannosaurus Rex Was A Cannibal [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1992. Mass Transit Grants: If Properly Implemented, FTA Initiatives Should Improve Oversight (No. RCED-93-8). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Akiyama, K.M., 2017. Taste Detection in Post-Laryngectomy Head and Neck Cancer Survivors and Its Effect on Dietary Intake and Malnutrition Status (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L., 2006. Justices Back Police Intervention Without a Warrant. New York Times A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Spurgeon, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Du and Xiao, 2014; Spurgeon, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Du and Xiao, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Ying et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleArthropod Structure and Development
ISSN (print)1467-8039

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