How to format your references using the Arthropod Structure and Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Arthropod Structure and Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Paulson, T., 2013. Epidemiology: A mortal foe. Nature 502, S2-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kaminski, D., Geisler, C., 2012. Survival analysis of faculty retention in science and engineering by gender. Science 335, 864–866.
A journal article with 3 authors
Laine, E.-M., Breuer, H.-P., Piilo, J., 2014. Nonlocal memory effects allow perfect teleportation with mixed states. Sci. Rep. 4, 4620.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Rose, R., Weyand, M., Lammers, M., Ishizaki, T., Ahmadian, M.R., Wittinghofer, A., 2005. Structural and mechanistic insights into the interaction between Rho and mammalian Dia. Nature 435, 513–518.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Johnston, D., 2011. A Brief History of Justice. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Gatti, G., Pravettoni, G., Capello, F. (Eds.), 2015. Tele-oncology, TELe-Health. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Simpson, J.A., Collins, W.A., Farrell, A.K., Raby, K.L., 2015. Attachment and Relationships Across Time: An Organizational-Developmental Perspective, in: Zayas, V., Hazan, C. (Eds.), Bases of Adult Attachment: Linking Brain, Mind and Behavior. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 61–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Arthropod Structure and Development.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2014. DARPA Wants Brain Implants For Restoring Memories [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1988. Leo Herbert, GAO, 1956-1974 (No. OP-7-OH). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Brecese, J.A., 2012. Out of Our Depth: Hyper-Extensionality and the Return of Three-Dimensional Media (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Otis, J., 2016. ‘You Need to Change’: A Grandmother’s Words Help Turn a Life Around. New York Times A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Paulson, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Kaminski and Geisler, 2012; Paulson, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kaminski and Geisler, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Rose et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleArthropod Structure and Development
ISSN (print)1467-8039

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