How to format your references using the Arthropod Structure and Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Arthropod Structure and Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith, M.S., 2009. Opening education. Science 323, 89–93.
A journal article with 2 authors
Viscidi, R.P., Shah, K.V., 2008. Cancer. A skin cancer virus? Science 319, 1049–1050.
A journal article with 3 authors
Säterberg, T., Sellman, S., Ebenman, B., 2013. High frequency of functional extinctions in ecological networks. Nature 499, 468–470.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ehleringer, J.R., Casale, J.F., Lott, M.J., Ford, V.L., 2000. Tracing the geographical origin of cocaine. Nature 408, 311–312.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hao, L., Lawrence, J., 2006. Laser Surface Treatment of Bio-Implant Materials. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Freksa, C., Newcombe, N.S., Gärdenfors, P., Wölfl, S. (Eds.), 2008. Spatial Cognition VI. Learning, Reasoning, and Talking about Space: International Conference Spatial Cognition 2008, Freiburg, Germany, September 15-19, 2008. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Raz, A.E., Schicktanz, S., 2016. Contextualizing the Cultural and Medico-Legal Debate on Adult Genetic Testing, in: Schicktanz, S. (Ed.), Comparative Empirical Bioethics: Dilemmas of Genetic Testing and Euthanasia in Israel and Germany, SpringerBriefs in Ethics. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 45–53.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Arthropod Structure and Development.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2016. Bald Eagles Caught Eating A Cat In Their Nest On Live Webcam [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2016. Intellectual Property: Survey of U.S. Patent Examiners (GAO-16-478SP, June 2016), an E-supplement to GAO-16-479 and GAO-16-490 (No. GAO-16-478SP). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kuqi, K., 2013. A matrix-Based Method for Optimizing the User Interface Design of Electronic Medical Record Systems (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M., Lehren, A.W., 2013. A Scandal Leaves Its Mark. New York Times D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smith, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Smith, 2009; Viscidi and Shah, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Viscidi and Shah, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Ehleringer et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleArthropod Structure and Development
ISSN (print)1467-8039

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