How to format your references using the Current Medical Research and Opinion citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Current Medical Research and Opinion. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Berry A. Alfred Russel Wallace: evolution’s red-hot radical. Nature. 2013;496:162–164.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wilson L, Head JW Iii. An integrated model of kimberlite ascent and eruption. Nature. 2007;447:53–57.
A journal article with 3 authors
Robinson DP, Das S, Watts AB. Earthquake rupture stalled by a subducting fracture zone. Science. 2006;312:1203–1205.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mold M, Ouro-Gnao L, Wieckowski BM, et al. Copper prevents amyloid-β(1-42) from forming amyloid fibrils under near-physiological conditions in vitro. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1256.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fraser J, Simkins BJ. Enterprise Risk Management. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
Bezerra EA. Synthesizable VHDL Design for FPGAs. Lettnin DV, editor. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Kasana RC, Panwar NR, Kaul RK, et al. Copper Nanoparticles in Agriculture: Biological Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity. In: Ranjan S, Dasgupta N, Lichtfouse E, editors. Nanoscience in Food and Agriculture 3. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 129–143.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Current Medical Research and Opinion.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. Hubble Spots “Runaway Star” Kicked Out Of A System 540 Years Ago [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Child Labor: Information on Federal Enforcement Efforts. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992. Report No.: HRD-92-127FS. .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rojas A. ASD: A family approach curriculum [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hartocollis A. Bidders’ Plans for Brooklyn Hospital Include Medical and Housing Needs. New York Times. 2014 Feb 8;A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCurrent Medical Research and Opinion
AbbreviationCurr. Med. Res. Opin.
ISSN (print)0300-7995
ISSN (online)1473-4877
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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