How to format your references using the Photochemistry and Photobiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Photochemistry and Photobiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Piwowar, H. (2013) Altmetrics: Value all research products. Nature 493, 159.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Penner-Hahn, J. E. and Yocum, C. F. (2005) Biochemistry. The photosynthesis ‘oxygen clock’ gets a new number. Science 310, 982–983.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Lavrentovich, O. D., Lazo, I. and Pishnyak, O. P. (2010) Nonlinear electrophoresis of dielectric and metal spheres in a nematic liquid crystal. Nature 467, 947–950.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1. Rondeau, G., Sánchez-Bayo, F., Tennekes, H. A., Decourtye, A., Ramírez-Romero, R. and Desneux, N. (2014) Delayed and time-cumulative toxicity of imidacloprid in bees, ants and termites. Sci. Rep. 4, 5566.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Harrison, R. G. (2014) Meteorological Measurements and Instrumentation. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
1. Azevedo, F., Barahona, P., Fages, F. and Rossi, F. eds. (2007) Recent Advances in Constraints: 11th Annual ERCIM International Workshop on Constraint Solving and Contraint Logic Programming, CSCLP 2006, Caparica, Portugal, June 26-28, 2006, Revised Selected and Invited Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Altmann, S. (2014) All Done by Mirrors: Symmetries, Quaternions, Spinors, and Clifford Algebras. In The Art of Science: From Perspective Drawing to Quantum Randomness (Edited by Lupacchini, R. and Angelini, A.), pp. 101–130. Springer International Publishing, Cham.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Photochemistry and Photobiology.

Blog post
1. Andrew, E. (2014) Fossils reveal how fish made transition from water to land. IFLScience. Available at: Accessed on 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office (1991) Highway Safety: Interim Report on Safety Belt and Motorcycle Helmet Effectiveness. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Hill, J. A. (2012)Classical three-body systems and the Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser theorem. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Lovett, I. and Nagourney, A. (2014) Deadly Rampage in College Town After Video Rant. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titlePhotochemistry and Photobiology
ISSN (print)0031-8655
ISSN (online)1751-1097

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