How to format your references using the Photochemistry and Photobiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Photochemistry and Photobiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Snyder, S. H. (2005) Obituary: Julius Axelrod (1912-2004). Nature 433, 593.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Wang, G. X. and Poo, M.-M. (2005) Requirement of TRPC channels in netrin-1-induced chemotropic turning of nerve growth cones. Nature 434, 898–904.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Zhao, J., Goldman, A. S. and Hartwig, J. F. (2005) Oxidative addition of ammonia to form a stable monomeric amido hydride complex. Science 307, 1080–1082.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1. Jarvis, E. D., Ribeiro, S., da Silva, M. L., Ventura, D., Vielliard, J. and Mello, C. V. (2000) Behaviourally driven gene expression reveals song nuclei in hummingbird brain. Nature 406, 628–632.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Schmidt, P., Körber, R. and Coppers, M. (2003) Sieben und Siebmaschinen. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG.
An edited book
1. McGeer, R., Berman, M., Elliott, C. and Ricci, R. eds. (2016) The GENI Book. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Gordis, J. H. (2014) Optimal Selection of Artificial Boundary Conditions for Model Update and Damage Detection – Part 2: Experiment. In Topics in Modal Analysis, Volume 7: Proceedings of the 31st IMAC, A Conference on Structural Dynamics, 2013 (Edited by Allemang, R., De Clerck, J., Niezrecki, C., and Wicks, A.) Conference Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Mechanics Series, pp. 37–60. Springer, New York, NY.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Photochemistry and Photobiology.

Blog post
1. Andrew, E. (2015) Herpes Virus Could Treat Skin Cancer. IFLScience. Available at: https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/herpes-virus-provides-new-hope-treating-skin-cancer/. Accessed on 30 October 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office (2005) No Child Left Behind Act: Most Students with Disabilities Participated in Statewide Assessments, but Inclusion Options Could Be Improved. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Chapple, C. M. (2015)A: Application of Polymeric Quaternary Ammonium Surfactant Clay Intercalates in Triphase Catalysis B: Effect of Various Compatibilizers in Polymer-Clay Nanocomposites. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Gustines, G. G. (2015) From the Drawing Board to the Page. New York Times C30.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titlePhotochemistry and Photobiology
ISSN (print)0031-8655
ISSN (online)1751-1097
Scope

Other styles