How to format your references using the Photochemistry and Photobiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Photochemistry and Photobiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Müller, A. (2003) Chemistry. The beauty of symmetry. Science 300, 749–750.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Enright, M. C. and Spratt, B. G. (2011) Genomics. The genomic view of bacterial diversification. Science 331, 407–409.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Barnham, K. W., Nelson, J. and Stevens, R. A. (2000) Did civil reactors supply plutonium for weapons? Nature 407, 833–834.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1. Férey, G., Mellot-Draznieks, C., Serre, C., Millange, F., Dutour, J., Surblé, S. and Margiolaki, I. (2005) A chromium terephthalate-based solid with unusually large pore volumes and surface area. Science 309, 2040–2042.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Crane, L. (2015) Knowledge and Discourse Matters. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
1. Schleer-van Gellecom, F. ed. (2014) Advances in Non-linear Economic Modeling: Theory and Applications. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Lopes, A., Oliveira, S., Fragoso, M., Andrade, J. A. and Pedro, P. (2009) Wind Risk Assessment in Urban Environments: The Case of Falling Trees During Windstorm Events in Lisbon. In Bioclimatology and Natural Hazards (Edited by Střelcová, K., Mátyás, C., Kleidon, A., Lapin, M., Matejka, F., Blaženec, M., Škvarenina, J., and Holécy, J.), pp. 55–74. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Photochemistry and Photobiology.

Blog post
1. O`Callaghan, J. (2017) This Guy Hired A Helicopter To Snap The First Image Of A Secret New SpaceX Machine. IFLScience. Available at: Accessed on 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office (1992) Information Technology: An Audit Guide For Assessing Acquisition Risks. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Reilly, C. A. (2014)Information and Communication Technology Use in the College Classroom: Adjunct Faculty Perspectives. Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Feeney, K. (2007) A Smorgasbord of Empanadas. New York Times NJ6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titlePhotochemistry and Photobiology
ISSN (print)0031-8655
ISSN (online)1751-1097

Other styles