How to format your references using the Photochemistry and Photobiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Photochemistry and Photobiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Cully, M. (2013) Drug development: Chemical brace. Nature 503, S10-2.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Barber, M. F. and Elde, N. C. (2014) Nutritional immunity. Escape from bacterial iron piracy through rapid evolution of transferrin. Science 346, 1362–1366.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Munday, J. N., Capasso, F. and Parsegian, V. A. (2009) Measured long-range repulsive Casimir-Lifshitz forces. Nature 457, 170–173.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1. Gong, Y., Cao, P., Yu, H.-J. and Jiang, T. (2008) Crystal structure of the neurotrophin-3 and p75NTR symmetrical complex. Nature 454, 789–793.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Anaya-Lara, O., Campos-Gaona, D., Moreno-Goytia, E. and Adam, G. (2014) Offshore Wind Energy Generation. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
1. Zourob, M. and Lakhtakia, A. eds. (2009) Optical Guided-wave Chemical and Biosensors I. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Tahirovic, A. and Magnani, G. (2013) Some Limitations and Real-Time Implementation. In Passivity-Based Model Predictive Control for Mobile Vehicle Motion Planning (Edited by Magnani, G.) SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering, pp. 41–51. Springer, London.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Photochemistry and Photobiology.

Blog post
1. Andrew, D. (2016) Study Reveals Why The Brain Can’t Forget Amputated Limbs, Even Decades Later. IFLScience. Available at: Accessed on 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office (2003) Mass Transit: FTA Needs to Provide Clear Information and Additional Guidance on the New Starts Ratings Process. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Demenkoff, J. H. (2014)Evolution and emergence of the masculinities: Epiphanies and epiphenomena of the male athlete and dancer. Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Walsh, M. W. and de la MERCED, M. J. (2014) Detroit Plan Is Said to Split Creditors Into 2 Groups. New York Times A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titlePhotochemistry and Photobiology
ISSN (print)0031-8655
ISSN (online)1751-1097

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