How to format your references using the Photochemistry and Photobiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Photochemistry and Photobiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Knapp, S. (2000) What’s in a name? Nature 408, 33.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. García-Bellido, D. C. and Collins, D. H. (2004) Moulting arthropod caught in the act. Nature 429, 40.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Berkhout, B., Das, A. T. and Beerens, N. (2001) HIV-1 RNA editing, hypermutation, and error-prone reverse transcription. Science 292, 7.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1. Sunda, W., Kieber, D. J., Kiene, R. P. and Huntsman, S. (2002) An antioxidant function for DMSP and DMS in marine algae. Nature 418, 317–320.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Matthews, G. G. (2002) Cellular Physiology of Nerve and Muscle. Blackwell Publishing Ltd., Malden, MA USA.
An edited book
1. Paredes, R., Cardoso, J. S. and Pardo, X. M. eds. (2015) Pattern Recognition and Image Analysis: 7th Iberian Conference, IbPRIA 2015, Santiago de Compostela, Spain, June 17-19, 2015, Proceedings. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Ullah, A. A. and Huque, A. S. (2014) Discrimination, Xenophobia and Stigmatization. In Asian Immigrants in North America with HIV/AIDS: Stigma, Vulnerabilities and Human Rights (Edited by Huque, A. S.), pp. 81–110. Springer, Singapore.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Photochemistry and Photobiology.

Blog post
1. Andrew, D. (2016) When ‘Energy’ Drinks Actually Contained Radioactive Energy. IFLScience. Available at: Accessed on 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office (1997) Direct Student Loans: Analyses of Borrowers’ Use of the Income Contingent Repayment Option. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Burns, D. (2017)Measuring the Outcome of At-Risk Students on Biology Standardized Tests When Using Different Instructional Strategies. Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Bowley, G. (2016) Master of Trades, if Not Art, Says He Was Duped. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titlePhotochemistry and Photobiology
ISSN (print)0031-8655
ISSN (online)1751-1097

Other styles