How to format your references using the Photochemistry and Photobiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Photochemistry and Photobiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Meyer, M. N. (2014) Misjudgements will drive social trials underground. Nature 511, 265.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Titus, S. and Bosch, X. (2010) Tie funding to research integrity. Nature 466, 436–437.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Halberda, J., Mazzocco, M. M. M. and Feigenson, L. (2008) Individual differences in non-verbal number acuity correlate with maths achievement. Nature 455, 665–668.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1. Li, Q., Chen, M., Perc, M., Iqbal, A. and Abbott, D. (2013) Effects of adaptive degrees of trust on coevolution of quantum strategies on scale-free networks. Sci. Rep. 3, 2949.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Camarillo, G. and García-Martín, M. A. (2006) The 3G IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS). John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
1. Kreuzer, M. (2016) Computational Linear and Commutative Algebra. (Edited by Robbiano, L.). Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Busquets-Mataix, J. V., Catalá, C. and Martí-Campoy, A. (2011) Architecture Extensions for Efficient Management of Scratch-Pad Memory. In Integrated Circuit and System Design. Power and Timing Modeling, Optimization, and Simulation: 21st International Workshop, PATMOS 2011, Madrid, Spain, September 26-29, 2011. Proceedings (Edited by Ayala, J. L., García-Cámara, B., Prieto, M., Ruggiero, M., and Sicard, G.) Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp. 43–52. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Photochemistry and Photobiology.

Blog post
1. Evans, K. (2016) Marriages Fail When Couples Get Stuck In These Two Toxic Relationship Dynamics. IFLScience. Available at: Accessed on 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office (2007) Information Technology: DHS Needs to Fully Define and Implement Policies and Procedures for Effectively Managing Investments. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Gauen, K. E. (2009)The impact of the Instructional Practices Inventory at an Illinois middle school. Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Feeney, K. (2009) Their Daily Flatbread. New York Times NJ12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titlePhotochemistry and Photobiology
ISSN (print)0031-8655
ISSN (online)1751-1097

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