How to format your references using the Drug and Alcohol Dependence citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Drug and Alcohol Dependence. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Trkola, A., 2014. HIV: Potency needs constancy. Nature 514, 442–443.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hommelhoff, P., Higuchi, T., 2015. Strong-field physics: Harmonic radiation from crystals. Nature 523, 541–542.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dunn, E.W., Aknin, L.B., Norton, M.I., 2008. Spending money on others promotes happiness. Science 319, 1687–1688.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Grima, B., Lamouroux, A., Chélot, E., Papin, C., Limbourg-Bouchon, B., Rouyer, F., 2002. The F-box protein slimb controls the levels of clock proteins period and timeless. Nature 420, 178–182.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety, 1995. Guidelines for Safe Process Operations and Maintenance. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Goh, J., Lim, C.T. (Eds.), 2015. 7th WACBE World Congress on Bioengineering 2015: 6th to 8th July, 2015, Singapore, IFMBE Proceedings. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Glendell, G., 2010. Training Companion Birds, in: Duncan, I.J.H., Hawkins, P. (Eds.), The Welfare of Domestic Fowl and Other Captive Birds, Animal Welfare. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 103–113.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Drug and Alcohol Dependence.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2016. Nearby “Venus Twin” Exoplanet Might Still Have Oxygen [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1995. International Aviation: Better Data on Code-Sharing Needed by DOT for Monitoring and Decisionmaking (No. T-RCED-95-170). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
De Ros, K.M., 2008. A content analysis of television ads: Does current practice maximize cognitive processing? (Doctoral dissertation). Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G., 2012. A Rivalry to Add to the City’s Rich History. New York Times D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Trkola, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Hommelhoff and Higuchi, 2015; Trkola, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hommelhoff and Higuchi, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Grima et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleDrug and Alcohol Dependence
AbbreviationDrug Alcohol Depend.
ISSN (print)0376-8716
ScopePharmacology (medical)
Psychiatry and Mental health

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