How to format your references using the Drug and Alcohol Dependence citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Drug and Alcohol Dependence. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Reichhardt, T., 2000. Funding woes spell doom for US radio dish. Nature 404, 7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wang, Y., Hekimi, S., 2015. Mitochondrial dysfunction and longevity in animals: Untangling the knot. Science 350, 1204–1207.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mace, K.A., Pearson, J.C., McGinnis, W., 2005. An epidermal barrier wound repair pathway in Drosophila is mediated by grainy head. Science 308, 381–385.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Svenningsson, P., Chergui, K., Rachleff, I., Flajolet, M., Zhang, X., El Yacoubi, M., Vaugeois, J.-M., Nomikos, G.G., Greengard, P., 2006. Alterations in 5-HT1B receptor function by p11 in depression-like states. Science 311, 77–80.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ho, R.J.Y., Gibaldi, M., 2003. Biotechnology and Biopharmaceuticals. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Adams, V.R., Burke, T.G. (Eds.), 2005. Camptothecins in Cancer Therapy, Cancer Drug Discovery and Development. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ.
A chapter in an edited book
Brokate, M., Kersting, G., 2015. The Integral of Nonnegative Functions, in: Kersting, G. (Ed.), Measure and Integral, Compact Textbooks in Mathematics. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 29–39.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Drug and Alcohol Dependence.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2014. Amazing 3D Fractals Inspired By Faberge Eggs [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1997. NASA’s Customer Satisfaction Measurements (No. NSIAD-97-81R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lucas, W.A., 2017. Dynamics of Food Consumption in a Q’eqchi’ Maya Community (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Coll, S., 2017. Mystery at the Museum. New York Times BR18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Reichhardt, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Reichhardt, 2000; Wang and Hekimi, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wang and Hekimi, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Svenningsson et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleDrug and Alcohol Dependence
AbbreviationDrug Alcohol Depend.
ISSN (print)0376-8716
ScopePharmacology (medical)
Psychiatry and Mental health

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