How to format your references using the Drug and Alcohol Dependence citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Drug and Alcohol Dependence. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Barrett, C.B., 2010. Measuring food insecurity. Science 327, 825–828.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wolfe, M.S., Selkoe, D.J., 2002. Biochemistry. Intramembrane proteases--mixing oil and water. Science 296, 2156–2157.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhou, T., Wang, T., Garcia, J.G.N., 2014. Expression of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase-influenced genes predicts recurrence-free survival in lung and breast cancers. Sci. Rep. 4, 6107.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Akagi, H., Otobe, T., Staudte, A., Shiner, A., Turner, F., Dörner, R., Villeneuve, D.M., Corkum, P.B., 2009. Laser tunnel ionization from multiple orbitals in HCl. Science 325, 1364–1367.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lutzke, D., 2012. Surfen in die digitale Zukunft. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Besley, T. (Ed.), 2016. Contemporary Issues in Development Economics, International Economic Association Series. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Galdi, V., Castaldi, G., Fiumara, V., Pierro, V., Pinto, I.M., Felsen, L.B., 2006. High-Frequency/Short-Pulse Wave Dynamics in Ray-Chaotic Scenarios: A Survey, in: Göknar, İ.C., Sevgi, L. (Eds.), Complex Computing-Networks: Brain-like and Wave-Oriented Electrodynamic Algorithms, Springer Proceedings in Physics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 37–43.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Drug and Alcohol Dependence.

Blog post
Hamilton, K., 2016. The Real Reason The EpiPen And Other Off-Patents Are So Expensive [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1973. Effectiveness and Administration of the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (No. 088970). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Takele, T., 2003. Confinement Mechanisms in Quantum Chromodynamics (Doctoral dissertation). University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, L., 1977. This great man George Sand; Infamous Woman. New York Times International Economic Survey272.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Barrett, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Barrett, 2010; Wolfe and Selkoe, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wolfe and Selkoe, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Akagi et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleDrug and Alcohol Dependence
AbbreviationDrug Alcohol Depend.
ISSN (print)0376-8716
ScopePharmacology (medical)
Psychiatry and Mental health

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