How to format your references using the Hand Surgery and Rehabilitation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hand Surgery and Rehabilitation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Raven K. How sexual harassment changed the way I work. Nature 2013;504:9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bader JS, Chant J. Systems biology. When proteomes collide. Science 2006;311:187–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Penner JE, Dong X, Chen Y. Observational evidence of a change in radiative forcing due to the indirect aerosol effect. Nature 2004;427:231–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Bortnik J, Li W, Thorne RM, Angelopoulos V, Cully C, Bonnell J, et al. An observation linking the origin of plasmaspheric hiss to discrete chorus emissions. Science 2009;324:775–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Adamczyk B. Foundations of Electromagnetic Compatibility. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
Williams RJ, editor. Cartilage Repair Strategies. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Guck D, Hatefi H, Hermanns H, Katoen J-P, Timmer M. Modelling, Reduction and Analysis of Markov Automata. In: Joshi K, Siegle M, Stoelinga M, D’Argenio PR, editors. Quantitative Evaluation of Systems: 10th International Conference, QEST 2013, Buenos Aires, Argentina, August 27-30, 2013. Proceedings, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013, p. 55–71.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hand Surgery and Rehabilitation.

Blog post
Hale T. Watch This Homemade Electromagnetic Gun Vaporize A Piggybank. IFLScience 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Greater Use of Exemplary Education Programs Could Improve Education for Disadvantaged Children. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1981.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Myers RE. Moderating the effectiveness of messages to promote physical activity in type 2 diabetes. Doctoral dissertation. University of South Florida, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M. Bowling With World’s Best, Then Rejoining 8th Grade. New York Times 2012:D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHand Surgery and Rehabilitation
AbbreviationHand Surg. Rehabil.
ISSN (print)2468-1229
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

Other styles