How to format your references using the Hand Surgery and Rehabilitation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hand Surgery and Rehabilitation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chakravarti A. Obituary: Victor Almon McKusick (1921-2008). Nature 2008;455:46.
A journal article with 2 authors
Steig EJ, Wolfe AP. Atmospheric science. Sprucing up Greenland. Science 2008;320:1595–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Madden MEE, Bodnar RJ, Rimstidt JD. Jarosite as an indicator of water-limited chemical weathering on Mars. Nature 2004;431:821–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Grigsby CL, Ho Y-P, Lin C, Engbersen JFJ, Leong KW. Microfluidic preparation of polymer-nucleic acid nanocomplexes improves nonviral gene transfer. Sci Rep 2013;3:3155.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ko CJ, Barr RJ. Dermatopathology. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
An edited book
Prentiss A, Kuijt I, Chatters JC, editors. Macroevolution in Human Prehistory: Evolutionary Theory and Processual Archaeology. New York, NY: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Morris P. A Window on the World—Wildlife Dioramas. In: Tunnicliffe SD, Scheersoi A, editors. Natural History Dioramas: History, Construction and Educational Role, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2015, p. 33–7.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hand Surgery and Rehabilitation.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Two New Studies Explain The Formation Of A Bullseye Crater On The Moon. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. National Aeronautics and Space Administration: Significant Actions Needed to Address Long-standing Financial Management Problems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bryant JD. The Investigation of Self-Determination in Students Participating in Higher Education with an Invisible Disability. Doctoral dissertation. Lindenwood University, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schmidt MS, Haberman M. Sessions, Shamed by President Over Inquiry, Was Set to Resign. New York Times 2017:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHand Surgery and Rehabilitation
AbbreviationHand Surg. Rehabil.
ISSN (print)2468-1229
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

Other styles