How to format your references using the Hand Surgery and Rehabilitation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hand Surgery and Rehabilitation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schiermeier Q. Network boost for southeast Europe. Nature 2001;410:619.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mastrandrea MD, Schneider SH. Probabilistic integrated assessment of “dangerous” climate change. Science 2004;304:571–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lavine MS, Voss D, Coontz R. A robotic future. Introduction to special issue. Science 2007;318:1083.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Narymbetov B, Omerzu A, Kabanov VV, Tokumoto M, Kobayashi H, Mihailovic D. Origin of ferromagnetic exchange interactions in a fullerene-organic compound. Nature 2000;407:883–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wolf KH, Barnes R. VoIP Emergency Calling. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2010.
An edited book
Raghavendra P, Raskhodnikova S, Jansen K, Rolim JDP, editors. Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques: 16th International Workshop, APPROX 2013, and 17th International Workshop, RANDOM 2013, Berkeley, CA, USA, August 21-23, 2013. Proceedings. vol. 8096. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Luna-Elizarrarás ME, Shapiro M, Struppa DC, Vajiac A. Geometry and Trigonometric Representations of Bicomplex Numbers. In: Shapiro M, Struppa DC, Vajiac A, editors. Bicomplex Holomorphic Functions: The Algebra, Geometry and Analysis of Bicomplex Numbers, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015, p. 51–72.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hand Surgery and Rehabilitation.

Blog post
Taub B. Gay Beetles Have More Fertile Sisters. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Air Force Decision Not To Purchase Certain Automatic Data Processing Equipment Located at Its Environmental Technical Applications Center, Washington, D.C. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1972.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nunez FV. A study of the application of the concepts of Karen Horney in leadership development within the National Management Association of the Boeing Company. Doctoral dissertation. Pepperdine University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S. Russian Troops Seal Off Town In Search for Chechen Rebels. New York Times 2002:13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHand Surgery and Rehabilitation
AbbreviationHand Surg. Rehabil.
ISSN (print)2468-1229
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

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