How to format your references using the Australian Critical Care citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Australian Critical Care (AUCC). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P. US industry starts to think big by acting small. Nature 2000;408(6812):621–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Penninger J. M., Woodgett J. Stem cells. PTEN--coupling tumor suppression to stem cells? Science 2001;294(5549):2116–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Deal Roger B., Henikoff Jorja G., Henikoff Steven. Genome-wide kinetics of nucleosome turnover determined by metabolic labeling of histones. Science 2010;328(5982):1161–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
King-Casas Brooks, Sharp Carla, Lomax-Bream Laura, Lohrenz Terry, Fonagy Peter, Montague P. Read. The rupture and repair of cooperation in borderline personality disorder. Science 2008;321(5890):806–10.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Maudlin Tim. Quantum Non-Locality and Relativity. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
An edited book
Hall Peter J., editor. The Square Kilometre Array: An Engineering Perspective. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Hazzan Orit, Dubinsky Yael. Change. In: Dubinsky Yael, editor. Agile Anywhere: Essays on Agile Projects and Beyond. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 15–20.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Australian Critical Care.

Blog post
Andrew Elise. Watch What Happens When A Ball Of Red-Hot Nickel Is Placed On Floral Foam. IFLScience. Available at Accessed October 30, 2018, 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Organization Conflict of Interest. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1976.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Geist Claudia. The marriage economy: Examining the economic impact and the context of marriage in comparative perspective. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dudziak Mary L. Obama’s Nixonian Precedent. New York Times 2013:A29.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleAustralian Critical Care
AbbreviationAust. Crit. Care
ISSN (print)1036-7314
ScopeCritical Care

Other styles