How to format your references using the Australian Critical Care citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Australian Critical Care (AUCC). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rice S. A. Interfering for the good of a chemical reaction. Nature 2001;409(6818):422–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vernot Benjamin, Akey Joshua M. Resurrecting surviving Neandertal lineages from modern human genomes. Science 2014;343(6174):1017–21.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pfeiffer T., Schuster S., Bonhoeffer S. Cooperation and competition in the evolution of ATP-producing pathways. Science 2001;292(5516):504–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Jordan I. King, Kondrashov Fyodor A., Adzhubei Ivan A., Wolf Yuri I., Koonin Eugene V., Kondrashov Alexey S., et al. A universal trend of amino acid gain and loss in protein evolution. Nature 2005;433(7026):633–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Matthews Clifford. Engineers’ Data Book. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
Lee Paul Tae-Woo, Cullinane Kevin, editors. Dynamic Shipping and Port Development in the Globalized Economy: Volume 2: Emerging Trends in Ports. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Consigli Giorgio, Tria Massimo di, Gaffo Michele, Iaquinta Gaetano, Moriggia Vittorio, Uristani Angelo. Dynamic Portfolio Management for Property and Casualty Insurance. In: Bertocchi Marida, Consigli Giorgio, Dempster Michael A. H., editors. Stochastic Optimization Methods in Finance and Energy: New Financial Products and Energy Market Strategies. New York, NY: Springer; 2011. p. 99–124.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Australian Critical Care.

Blog post
Luntz Stephen. Vaccines Against HPV Really Do Reduce Cervical Cancer Rates. IFLScience. Available at Accessed October 30, 2018, 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. DOD Education Benefits: Action Is Needed to Ensure Evaluations of Postsecondary Schools Are Useful. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Martinez Cecilia A. Intervention workshops for members of multidisciplinary teams on hoarding: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik James. Big Ideas and Short-Term Stays. New York Times 2017:C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleAustralian Critical Care
AbbreviationAust. Crit. Care
ISSN (print)1036-7314
ScopeCritical Care

Other styles