How to format your references using the Australian Critical Care citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Australian Critical Care (AUCC). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hederstedt Lars. Structural biology. Complex II is complex too. Science 2003;299(5607):671–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Phadnis Nitin, Orr H. Allen. A single gene causes both male sterility and segregation distortion in Drosophila hybrids. Science 2009;323(5912):376–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Maamar Hédia, Raj Arjun, Dubnau David. Noise in gene expression determines cell fate in Bacillus subtilis. Science 2007;317(5837):526–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Tabuchi Katsuhiko, Blundell Jacqueline, Etherton Mark R., Hammer Robert E., Liu Xinran, Powell Craig M., et al. A neuroligin-3 mutation implicated in autism increases inhibitory synaptic transmission in mice. Science 2007;318(5847):71–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Choi Nak-Eon, Han Jung H. How Flavor Works. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
Dobkin Patricia Lynn. Mindful Medical Practitioners: A Guide for Clinicians and Educators. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Lone Shabir H., Bhat Khursheed Ahmad, Khuroo Mohammad Akbar. Biological Profile of Artemisia amygdalina. In: Bhat Khursheed Ahmad, Khuroo Mohammad Akbar, editors. Chemical and Pharmacological Perspective of Artemisia amygdalina. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 39–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Australian Critical Care.

Blog post
Davis Josh. “Secret Ginger Gene” May Increase Risk Of Developing Skin Cancer. IFLScience. Available at Accessed October 30, 2018, 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Stronger Measures Needed To Insure That Medical Diathermy Devices Are Safe and Effective. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1976.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Williamson Christina L. Hispanic female undergraduates perception of nursing as a career choice: A phenomenological study. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow Linda. L.I.R.R. Safety Campaign Under Way. New York Times 2007:LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleAustralian Critical Care
AbbreviationAust. Crit. Care
ISSN (print)1036-7314
ScopeCritical Care

Other styles