How to format your references using the Australian Critical Care citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Australian Critical Care (AUCC). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Beattie Gwyn A. Microbiomes: Curating communities from plants. Nature 2015;528(7582):340–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Freeman Richard B., Huang Wei. Collaboration: Strength in diversity. Nature 2014;513(7518):305.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cramer P., Bushnell D. A., Kornberg R. D. Structural basis of transcription: RNA polymerase II at 2.8 angstrom resolution. Science 2001;292(5523):1863–76.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Graham Ian A., Besser Katrin, Blumer Susan, Branigan Caroline A., Czechowski Tomasz, Elias Luisa, et al. The genetic map of Artemisia annua L. identifies loci affecting yield of the antimalarial drug artemisinin. Science 2010;327(5963):328–31.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
MacGowan Christopher. The Twentieth-Century American Fiction Handbook. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
An edited book
Wymyslowski Artur, Iwamoto Nancy, Yuen Matthew, Fan Haibo, editors. Molecular Modeling and Multiscaling Issues for Electronic Material Applications: Volume 2. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Souto Wedson Medeiros Silva, Pinto Lorena Cristina, Mendonça Lívia Emanuelle Tavares, Mourão José Silva, Vieira Washington Luiz Silva, Montenegro Paulo Fernando Guedes Pereira, et al. Medicinal Animals in Ethnoveterinary Practices: A World Overview. In: Alves Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega, Rosa Ierecê Lucena, editors. Animals in Traditional Folk Medicine: Implications for Conservation. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. p. 43–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Australian Critical Care.

Blog post
Hale Tom. This Could Be This First Female With “Tree Man Syndrome.” IFLScience. Available at Accessed October 30, 2018, 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Passenger Facility Charges: Program Implementation and the Potential Effects of Proposed Changes. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Alsubaihi Shroog Ibrahim. Challenges for women academic leaders to obtain senior leadership positions in higher education in Saudi Arabia. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA, 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Diamond Jason. Finding My Florida. New York Times 2017:TR1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleAustralian Critical Care
AbbreviationAust. Crit. Care
ISSN (print)1036-7314
ScopeCritical Care

Other styles