How to format your references using the Philosophies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Philosophies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Brophy, P.J. Microbiology. Subversion of Schwann cells and the leper’s bell. Science 2002, 296, 862–863.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Reinhart, B.J.; Bartel, D.P. Small RNAs correspond to centromere heterochromatic repeats. Science 2002, 297, 1831.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Yang, L.; Yang, N.; Li, B. Reduction of thermal conductivity by nanoscale 3D phononic crystal. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 1143.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1.
Rebouissou, S.; Amessou, M.; Couchy, G.; Poussin, K.; Imbeaud, S.; Pilati, C.; Izard, T.; Balabaud, C.; Bioulac-Sage, P.; Zucman-Rossi, J. Frequent in-frame somatic deletions activate gp130 in inflammatory hepatocellular tumours. Nature 2009, 457, 200–204.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Ng, R. Drugs; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2005; ISBN 9780471722809.
An edited book
1.
Balogh, A. Physics of Collisionless Shocks: Space Plasma Shock Waves; Treumann, R.A., Ed.; ISSI Scientific Report Series; Springer: New York, NY, 2013; Vol. 12; ISBN 9781461460985.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Stubberud, S.C.; Teranishi, A.M. Estimation for Target Tracking Using a Control Theoretic Approach – Part I. In Advances in Systems Science: Proceedings of the International Conference on Systems Science 2013 (ICSS 2013); Swiątek, J., Grzech, A., Swiątek, P., Tomczak, J.M., Eds.; Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2014; pp. 35–43 ISBN 9783319018560.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Philosophies.

Blog post
1.
Andrew, E. Peak Athletic Performance Is Dependent On Sleep Cycle Available online: https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/peak-athletic-performance-dependent-sleep-cycle/ (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office Mass Transit: WMATA Is Addressing Many Challenges, but Capital Planning Could Be Improved; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2001;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Naik, M. Automating the process of antibiotic susceptibility testing. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Kenigsberg, B. Out of Iraq, Still Scanning for Roadside Bombs in Kansas. New York Times 2017, C9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePhilosophies
ISSN (online)2409-9287
Scope

Other styles