How to format your references using the Philosophies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Philosophies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gursky, H. X-Ray Astronomy-40 Years On. Science 2002, 297, 1485–1486.
A journal article with 2 authors
Harpole, W.S.; Tilman, D. Grassland Species Loss Resulting from Reduced Niche Dimension. Nature 2007, 446, 791–793.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hoffmann, K.F.; Brindley, P.J.; Berriman, M. Medicine. Halting Harmful Helminths. Science 2014, 346, 168–169.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Schaffitzel, C.; Oswald, M.; Berger, I.; Ishikawa, T.; Abrahams, J.P.; Koerten, H.K.; Koning, R.I.; Ban, N. Structure of the E. Coli Signal Recognition Particle Bound to a Translating Ribosome. Nature 2006, 444, 503–506.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Feyel, P. Loop-Shaping Robust Control; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ USA, 2013; ISBN 9781118575246.
An edited book
Homburg, C. Sales Excellence: Systematic Sales Management; Schäfer, H., Schneider, J., Eds.; Management for Professionals; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012; ISBN 9783642291685.
A chapter in an edited book
Post, W. Car braking-system components. In Brakes, Brake Control and Driver Assistance Systems: Function, Regulation and Components; Reif, K., Ed.; Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden: Wiesbaden, 2014; pp. 40–55 ISBN 9783658039776.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Philosophies.

Blog post
Hale, T. A Dolphin Pod Put On Quite A Show In This Stunning Footage (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Aviation Certification: FAA Has Made Continued Progress in Improving Its Processes for U.S. Aviation Products; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2017;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Winhusen, E.R. Precambrian Seawater Temperature Analysis Using Oxygen Isotopes from Hamersley Carbonates, Western Australia. Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati: Cincinnati, OH, 2001.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Oestreich, J.R. After the Deluge, Going On With the Show. New York Times 2017, C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePhilosophies
ISSN (online)2409-9287

Other styles