How to format your references using the Philosophies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Philosophies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Weinberg, S. Scientist: four golden lessons. Nature 2003, 426, 389.
A journal article with 2 authors
Miller, L.H.; Greenwood, B. Malaria--a shadow over Africa. Science 2002, 298, 121–122.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hannon, J.B.; Tersoff, J.; Tromp, R.M. Surface stress and thermodynamic nanoscale size selection. Science 2002, 295, 299–301.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Jacobs, Z.; Roberts, R.G.; Galbraith, R.F.; Deacon, H.J.; Grün, R.; Mackay, A.; Mitchell, P.; Vogelsang, R.; Wadley, L. Ages for the Middle Stone Age of southern Africa: implications for human behavior and dispersal. Science 2008, 322, 733–735.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Marteel-Parrish, A.E.; Abraham, M.A. Green Chemistry and Engineering; John Wiley & Sons, Inc: Hoboken, NJ, 2013; ISBN 9781118720011.
An edited book
Enterprise Applications and Services in the Finance Industry: 4th International Workshop, FinanceCom 2008, Paris, France, December 13, 2008. Revised Papers; Kundisch, D., Veit, D.J., Weitzel, T., Weinhardt, C., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009; Vol. 23; ISBN 9783642011962.
A chapter in an edited book
Ignaciuk, P.; Bartoszewicz, A. Flow Control in Continuous-Time Systems. In Congestion Control in Data Transmission Networks: Sliding Mode and Other Designs; Bartoszewicz, A., Ed.; Communications and Control Engineering; Springer: London, 2013; pp. 61–86 ISBN 9781447141464.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Philosophies.

Blog post
Andrew, D. How To Save Inbred, Short-Faced Dogs Such As Pugs And Bulldogs From Poor Health Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office No Child Left Behind Act: Assistance from Education Could Help States Better Measure Progress of Students with Limited English Proficiency (Spanish Language Highlights); U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2006;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hirschy, M.A. Differences in usage of federally funded insurance options by women. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chira, S. For Mothers Seeking Office, a Familiar Double Standard. New York Times 2017, A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePhilosophies
ISSN (online)2409-9287

Other styles