How to format your references using the Philosophies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Philosophies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bignami, G.F. Astronomy. Two Missions, One Microquasar. Science 2009, 326, 1490–1491.
A journal article with 2 authors
Allison, E.H.; Bassett, H.R. Climate Change in the Oceans: Human Impacts and Responses. Science 2015, 350, 778–782.
A journal article with 3 authors
Velarde, E.; Ezcurra, E.; Anderson, D.W. Seabird Diets Provide Early Warning of Sardine Fishery Declines in the Gulf of California. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 1332.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yang, Y.; Sun, C.; Ren, Y.; Hao, S.; Jiang, D. New Route toward Building Active Ruthenium Nanoparticles on Ordered Mesoporous Carbons with Extremely High Stability. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 4540.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pavé, A. Modeling Living Systems; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2012; ISBN 9781118569634.
An edited book
Pediatric Vascular Neurosurgery: Principles and Practice of Neurovascular Disorders (Part 1); Agrawal, A., Britz, G., Eds.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; ISBN 9783319436340.
A chapter in an edited book
Cristino, A.S.; Andrade, R.F.S.; da Fontoura Costa, L. Detecting and Characterizing the Modular Structure of the Yeast Transcription Network. In Complex Networks: Results of the 2009 International Workshop on Complex Networks (CompleNet 2009); Fortunato, S., Mangioni, G., Menezes, R., Nicosia, V., Eds.; Studies in Computational Intelligence; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009; pp. 35–46 ISBN 9783642012051.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Philosophies.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Amputee Simultaneously Controls Two Robotic Prosthetic Limbs With His Thoughts Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Schools and Libraries Corporation: Actions Needed to Strengthen Program Integrity Operations Before Committing Funds; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1998;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bozorgchami, B. Time and Bandwidth Efficiency in Transmission of Telemedicine and In-Hospital Patient Data. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. Ryan Tries to Flatten A Persistent Opponent. New York Times 2010, B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePhilosophies
ISSN (online)2409-9287

Other styles