How to format your references using the Philosophies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Philosophies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eisenstein, M. Diversity: Of Beans and Genes. Nature 2010, 468, S13-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Finke, D.L.; Snyder, W.E. Niche Partitioning Increases Resource Exploitation by Diverse Communities. Science 2008, 321, 1488–1490.
A journal article with 3 authors
Müller, H.; Peters, A.; Chu, S. A Precision Measurement of the Gravitational Redshift by the Interference of Matter Waves. Nature 2010, 463, 926–929.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Borducchi, E.N.; Liu, J.; Nkolola, J.P.; Cadena, A.M.; Yu, W.-H.; Fischinger, S.; Broge, T.; Abbink, P.; Mercado, N.B.; Chandrashekar, A.; et al. Antibody and TLR7 Agonist Delay Viral Rebound in SHIV-Infected Monkeys. Nature 2018, 563, 360–364.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fabozzi, F.J. Institutional Investment Management; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2009; ISBN 9781118267059.
An edited book
Sensor Systems and Software: 4th International ICST Conference, S-Cube 2013, Lucca, Italy, June 11-12, 2013, Revised Selected Papers; Zuniga, M., Dini, G., Eds.; Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2013; Vol. 122; ISBN 9783319041650.
A chapter in an edited book
Hong, W.; Wang, H. Branching Structures Within Random Walks and Their Applications. In Branching Processes and Their Applications; del Puerto, I.M., González, M., Gutiérrez, C., Martínez, R., Minuesa, C., Molina, M., Mota, M., Ramos, A., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Statistics; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; pp. 57–73 ISBN 9783319316390.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Philosophies.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. What’s At The Bottom Of The Deepest Hole On Earth? (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Special Education: Improved Timeliness and Better Use of Enforcement Actions Could Strengthen Education’s Monitoring System; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2004;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lew, M.M. Hydroxyl, Hydroperoxyl, and Organic Peroxy Radical Chemistry in Forested Areas: Measurements, Modeling and Implications for Atmospheric Chemistry. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University: Bloomington, IN, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Corkery, M.; Walsh, M.W. Island Trips for Treasury. New York Times 2015, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePhilosophies
ISSN (online)2409-9287

Other styles