How to format your references using the Philosophies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Philosophies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Geanakoplos, J. Recession Watch: End the Obsession with Interest. Nature 2009, 457, 963.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cox, P.; Stephenson, D. Climate Change. A Changing Climate for Prediction. Science 2007, 317, 207–208.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sword, G.A.; Lorch, P.D.; Gwynne, D.T. Insect Behaviour: Migratory Bands Give Crickets Protection. Nature 2005, 433, 703.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Scott, T.F.; Schneider, A.D.; Cook, W.D.; Bowman, C.N. Photoinduced Plasticity in Cross-Linked Polymers. Science 2005, 308, 1615–1617.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gustafsson, F. Adaptive Filtering and Change Detection; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2001; ISBN 9780470841617.
An edited book
Multimodal Communication in Political Speech. Shaping Minds and Social Action: International Workshop, Political Speech 2010, Rome, Italy, November 10-12, 2010, Revised Selected Papers; Poggi, I., D’Errico, F., Vincze, L., Vinciarelli, A., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013; Vol. 7688; ISBN 9783642415449.
A chapter in an edited book
Inverardi, P. Software of the Future Is the Future of Software? In Trustworthy Global Computing: Second Symposium, TGC 2006, Lucca, Italy, November 7-9, 2006, Revised Selected Papers; Montanari, U., Sannella, D., Bruni, R., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007; pp. 69–85 ISBN 9783540753339.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Philosophies.

Blog post
Hale, T. A Mystery Space Object Will Cruise Past Earth Next Month Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Impoundments: Proposed Rescissions of Justice, Transportation, and NASA Funds; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1995;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Foley, J.D. Comparing Kac-Moody Groups over the Complex Numbers and Fields of Positive Characteristic via Homotopy Theory. Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego: La Jolla, CA, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B. Marginalized Souls, Magnified. New York Times 2017, C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePhilosophies
ISSN (online)2409-9287

Other styles