How to format your references using the Frontiers in Epilepsy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Epilepsy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bender, E. (2015). Big data in biomedicine. Nature 527, S1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Koyama, K., and Takemoto, S. (2014). Morning reduction of photosynthetic capacity before midday depression. Sci. Rep. 4, 4389.
A journal article with 3 authors
Buchner, D. A., Trudeau, M., and Meisler, M. H. (2003). SCNM1, a putative RNA splicing factor that modifies disease severity in mice. Science 301, 967–969.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Liu, B., Qu, J., Zhang, W., Tan, L., and Gao, Y. (2014). Numerical evaluation of the scale problem on the wind flow of a windbreak. Sci. Rep. 4, 6619.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fleckenstein, P., Tranum-Jensen, J., and Myschetzky, P. S. (2014). Anatomy in Diagnostic Imaging. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Melas, V. B., Mignani, S., Monari, P., and Salmaso, L. eds. (2014). Topics in Statistical Simulation: Research Papers from the 7th International Workshop on Statistical Simulation. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Inglese, M., Ge, Y., and Grossman, R. I. (2007). “Magnetization Transfer Imaging,” in Neurodegeneration in Multiple Sclerosis Topics in Neuroscience., eds. M. Filippi, M. Rovaris, and G. Comi (Milano: Springer), 47–53.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Epilepsy.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2017). Astronomers Discover Giant Magnetic Fields Stretching Between Galaxies. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2000). Medicare: Post-Hearing Questions Related to Financial and Information Technology Management. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Luvani, K. D. (2017). AIRtouch: An Intelligent Virtual Keyboard.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Tommasini, A. (2017). A Rich Revival for a Chilling Drama. New York Times, C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bender, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Bender, 2015; Koyama and Takemoto, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Koyama and Takemoto, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Liu et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Epilepsy
AbbreviationFront. Neurol.
ISSN (online)1664-2295
ScopeClinical Neurology

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