How to format your references using the Frontiers in Epilepsy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Epilepsy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gong, P. (2011). China needs no foreign help to feed itself. Nature 474, 7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tregenza, T., and Wedell, N. (2002). Polyandrous females avoid costs of inbreeding. Nature 415, 71–73.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dolan, J. F., Christofferson, S. A., and Shaw, J. H. (2003). Recognition of paleoearthquakes on the Puente Hills blind thrust fault, California. Science 300, 115–118.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Riebesell, U., Zondervan, I., Rost, B., Tortell, P. D., Zeebe, R. E., and Morel, F. M. (2000). Reduced calcification of marine plankton in response to increased atmospheric CO2. Nature 407, 364–367.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Martinelli, R. J., Waddell, J. M., and Rahschulte, T. J. (2014). Program Management for Improved Business Results. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Grelck, C., Huch, F., Michaelson, G. J., and Trinder, P. eds. (2005). Implementation and Application of Functional Languages: 16th International Workshop, IFL 2004, Lübeck, Germany, September 8-10, 2004 Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Izzo, F. C., van den Berg, K. J., van Keulen, H., Ferriani, B., and Zendri, E. (2014). “Modern Oil Paints – Formulations, Organic Additives and Degradation: Some Case Studies,” in Issues in Contemporary Oil Paint, eds. K. J. van den Berg, A. Burnstock, M. de Keijzer, J. Krueger, T. Learner, T. D. Alberto, et al. (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 75–104.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Epilepsy.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015). New Aluminum Battery Could Recharge Your Phone In Just One Minute. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2014). Commercial Aviation: Status of Air Service to Small Communities and the Federal Programs Involved. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bryan, J. D. (2009). Team development social networking and its impact on the encouragement of spiritual leadership.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2010). Some Northern Flair for a Pinstripe Affair. New York Times, B15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gong, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Tregenza and Wedell, 2002; Gong, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tregenza and Wedell, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Riebesell et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Epilepsy
AbbreviationFront. Neurol.
ISSN (online)1664-2295
ScopeClinical Neurology

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