How to format your references using the Frontiers in Epilepsy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Epilepsy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. (2005). In the picture. Nature 434, 251.
A journal article with 2 authors
Perry, B., and Sones, K. (2007). Science for development. Poverty reduction through animal health. Science 315, 333–334.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shaw, S. L., Kamyar, R., and Ehrhardt, D. W. (2003). Sustained microtubule treadmilling in Arabidopsis cortical arrays. Science 300, 1715–1718.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Price, T. A. R., Hodgson, D. J., Lewis, Z., Hurst, G. D. D., and Wedell, N. (2008). Selfish genetic elements promote polyandry in a fly. Science 322, 1241–1243.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Natsuno, T. (2005). i-Mode Strategy. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Öchsner, A., and Altenbach, H. eds. (2014). Design and Computation of Modern Engineering Materials. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Teich, T., Militzer, J., Jahn, F., Neumann, T., and Kretz, D. (2010). “Step Standardized Product Data Representation and Exchange for Optimized Product Development and Automated Process Planning,” in Proceedings of the 6th CIRP-Sponsored International Conference on Digital Enterprise Technology Advances in Intelligent and Soft Computing., eds. G. Q. Huang, K. L. Mak, and P. G. Maropoulos (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 41–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Epilepsy.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2015). 7 Myths About Space You Probably Believe. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1994). Longer Combination Trucks: Potential Infrastructure Impacts, Productivity Benefits, and Safety Concerns. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zometa, E. (2017). Imaging Service Consultations: Imaging Express.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J. (2017). NBC News Revamps Leadership and Focuses Abroad. New York Times, B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik, 2005; Perry and Sones, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Perry and Sones, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Price et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Epilepsy
AbbreviationFront. Neurol.
ISSN (online)1664-2295
ScopeClinical Neurology

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