How to format your references using the Frontiers in Epilepsy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Epilepsy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wentrup, C. (2001). Chemistry. Fleeting molecules extend their stay. Science 292, 1846–1847.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hugall, A. F., and Stuart-Fox, D. (2012). Accelerated speciation in colour-polymorphic birds. Nature 485, 631–634.
A journal article with 3 authors
Johnson, K. S., Riser, S. C., and Karl, D. M. (2010). Nitrate supply from deep to near-surface waters of the North Pacific subtropical gyre. Nature 465, 1062–1065.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Karrai, K., Warburton, R. J., Schulhauser, C., Högele, A., Urbaszek, B., McGhee, E. J., et al. (2004). Hybridization of electronic states in quantum dots through photon emission. Nature 427, 135–138.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Girling, P. (2013). Operational Risk Management. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Agosti, M., Esposito, F., Ferilli, S., and Ferro, N. eds. (2013). Digital Libraries and Archives: 8th Italian Research Conference, IRCDL 2012, Bari, Italy, February 9-10, 2012, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Fujiyoshi, M., Fujiyoshi, A., Osawa, A., Kuroda, Y., and Sasaki, Y. (2014). “Development of Synchronized CUI and GUI for Universal Design Tactile Graphics Production System BPLOT3,” in Computers Helping People with Special Needs: 14th International Conference, ICCHP 2014, Paris, France, July 9-11, 2014, Proceedings, Part II Lecture Notes in Computer Science., eds. K. Miesenberger, D. Fels, D. Archambault, P. Peňáz, and W. Zagler (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 18–25.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Epilepsy.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2016). Hunting Could Cause Birds To Develop Bigger Brains. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992). Railroad Safety: Accident Trends and FRA Safety Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Matthews, L. K. (2016). The impact of trait displaced aggression and social support on cardiovascular reactivity.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M. (2010). ‘Jersey’ Seems to Be the Word. New York Times, E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wentrup, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Wentrup, 2001; Hugall and Stuart-Fox, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hugall and Stuart-Fox, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Karrai et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Epilepsy
AbbreviationFront. Neurol.
ISSN (online)1664-2295
ScopeClinical Neurology

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