How to format your references using the Journal of Signal Processing Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Signal Processing Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Huntress, W. T., Jr. (2003). Planetary science. Human space exploration is about more than just science. Science (New York, N.Y.), 301(5634), 771.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mumford, D., & Tate, J. (2015). Alexander Grothendieck (1928-2014). Nature, 517(7534), 272.
A journal article with 3 authors
Goebel, T., Waters, M. R., & O’Rourke, D. H. (2008). The late Pleistocene dispersal of modern humans in the Americas. Science (New York, N.Y.), 319(5869), 1497–1502.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Crichton, W. A., Mezouar, M., Grande, T., Stølen, S., & Grzechnik, A. (2001). Breakdown of intermediate-range order in liquid GeSe(2) at high pressure. Nature, 414(6864), 622–625.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Benitez, M., Davidson, J., & Flaxman, L. (2009). Small Schools, Big Ideas. San Francisco, CA, USA: Jossey-Bass.
An edited book
Ahmad, P., Azooz, M. M., & Prasad, M. N. V. (Eds.). (2013). Salt Stress in Plants: Signalling, Omics and Adaptations. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Dünnweber, J., Gorlatch, S., Aldinucci, M., Campa, S., & Danelutto, M. (2007). Adaptable Parallel Components for Grid Programming. In S. Gorlatch & M. Danelutto (Eds.), Integrated Research in GRID Computing: CoreGRID Integration Workshop 2005 (Selected Papers) November 28–30, Pisa, Italy (pp. 43–57). Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Signal Processing Systems.

Blog post
Evans, K. (2017, March 17). “Intellectual Humility” Is Surprisingly Bipartisan. IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1992). NASA Aeronautics: Efforts to Preserve U.S. Leadership in the Aeronautics Industry Are Limited (No. T-NSIAD-92-14). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Goggin, S. (2009). The European Capital of Culture: The politics of a becoming Europe (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Yee, V. (2014, March 25). Closing on Short Notice, Brooklyn Assisted-Living Home Angers Families. New York Times, p. A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Signal Processing Systems
AbbreviationJ. Signal Process. Syst.
ISSN (print)1939-8018
ISSN (online)1939-8115
ScopeHardware and Architecture
Information Systems
Signal Processing
Control and Systems Engineering
Modelling and Simulation
Theoretical Computer Science

Other styles