How to format your references using the Journal of Signal Processing Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Signal Processing Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Geim, A. K. (2009). Graphene: status and prospects. Science (New York, N.Y.), 324(5934), 1530–1534.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tikhonov, V. I., & Volkov, A. A. (2002). Separation of water into its ortho and para isomers. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5577), 2363.
A journal article with 3 authors
Robinson, G. E., Fernald, R. D., & Clayton, D. F. (2008). Genes and social behavior. Science (New York, N.Y.), 322(5903), 896–900.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Field, G. D., Gauthier, J. L., Sher, A., Greschner, M., Machado, T. A., Jepson, L. H., … Chichilnisky, E. J. (2010). Functional connectivity in the retina at the resolution of photoreceptors. Nature, 467(7316), 673–677.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
He, J., Zeng, R., & Zhang, B. (2012). Methodology and Technology for Power System Grounding. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd.
An edited book
Mohapatra, S. (2014). Cloud Computing and ROI: A New Framework for IT Strategy. (L. Lokhande, Ed.). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Paul, D. J. (2014). Quantum Cascade Lasers. In M. Perenzoni & D. J. Paul (Eds.), Physics and Applications of Terahertz Radiation (pp. 103–121). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Signal Processing Systems.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, July 20). Stephen Hawking Announces $100 Million Pledge To Search For Intelligent Extraterrestrial Life. IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1985). Support for Development of Electronics and Materials Technologies by the Governments of the United States, Japan, West Germany, France, and the United Kingdom (No. RCED-85-63). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nagarajan, S. (2009). Migration, remittances, and household health: Evidence from South Africa (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly, E. (1995, January 25). At the Nation’s Table: Davenport, Calif.; A New-Age Juice Intended For Women. New York Times, p. C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Signal Processing Systems
AbbreviationJ. Signal Process. Syst.
ISSN (print)1939-8018
ISSN (online)1939-8115
ScopeHardware and Architecture
Information Systems
Signal Processing
Control and Systems Engineering
Modelling and Simulation
Theoretical Computer Science

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