How to format your references using the Journal of Signal Processing Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Signal Processing Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ioannidis, J. P. A. (2011). More time for research: fund people not projects. Nature, 477(7366), 529–531.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stewart, S. A., & Allen, P. J. (2002). A 20-km-diameter multi-ringed impact structure in the North Sea. Nature, 418(6897), 520–523.
A journal article with 3 authors
Moran, N. A., McLaughlin, H. J., & Sorek, R. (2009). The dynamics and time scale of ongoing genomic erosion in symbiotic bacteria. Science (New York, N.Y.), 323(5912), 379–382.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Shuster, D. L., Ehlers, T. A., Rusmoren, M. E., & Farley, K. A. (2005). Rapid glacial erosion at 1.8 Ma revealed by 4He/3He thermochronometry. Science (New York, N.Y.), 310(5754), 1668–1670.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Woods, D. R. (2005). Successful Trouble Shooting for Process Engineers. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Altenbach, H., & Sadowski, T. (Eds.). (2015). Failure and Damage Analysis of Advanced Materials (1st ed., Vol. 560). Vienna: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Medeiros, F. A. (2010). Glaucoma Risk Factors: Fluctuations in Intraocular Pressure. In P. N. Schacknow & J. R. Samples (Eds.), The Glaucoma Book: A Practical, Evidence-Based Approach to Patient Care (pp. 51–54). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Signal Processing Systems.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2016, November 17). Man Who Fell Into Yellowstone Hot Spring Completely Dissolved Within A Day. IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2008). Information Technology: OMB and Agencies Need to Improve Planning, Management, and Oversight of Projects Totaling Billions of Dollars (No. GAO-08-1051T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pence, P. L. (2010). Emotional intelligence, motivation, and retention among undergraduate students attending associate-degree nursing programs in Illinois (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W. (2010, November 17). A Footnote Explains a Dispute Over Treasury’s Bailout Figures. New York Times, p. B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Signal Processing Systems
AbbreviationJ. Signal Process. Syst.
ISSN (print)1939-8018
ISSN (online)1939-8115
ScopeHardware and Architecture
Information Systems
Signal Processing
Control and Systems Engineering
Modelling and Simulation
Theoretical Computer Science

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