How to format your references using the Journal of Signal Processing Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Signal Processing Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Laporte, R. (2004). Recruiters and academia. Nature, 428(6985), 876.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tanaka, A., & Sakaguchi, S. (2015). Immunology. Early life Aire. Science (New York, N.Y.), 348(6234), 506–507.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen, W., Shimada, S., & Tanaka, M. (2002). Synthesis and structure of formally hexavalent palladium complexes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 295(5553), 308–310.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kay, S., Hahn, S., Marois, E., Hause, G., & Bonas, U. (2007). A bacterial effector acts as a plant transcription factor and induces a cell size regulator. Science (New York, N.Y.), 318(5850), 648–651.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Landragin, F. (2013). Man-Machine Dialogue. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Tamaki, N., & Kuge, Y. (Eds.). (2010). Molecular Imaging for Integrated Medical Therapy and Drug Development. Tokyo: Springer Japan.
A chapter in an edited book
Valle, M., & Zamorani, M. P. (2007). Nerve and Blood Vessels. In C. Martinoli (Ed.), Ultrasound of the Musculoskeletal System (pp. 97–136). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Signal Processing Systems.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, May 23). Top Ten Newly-Discovered Species. IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2009). Financial Management Systems: OMB’s Financial Management Line of Business Initiative Continues but Future Success Remains Uncertain (No. GAO-09-328). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Koh, S. A. (2010). A comparison of treatment integrity assessment methods for behavioral intervention (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, B. (2017, September 22). Engaged Players Are on Same Side, Even in Singles. New York Times, p. SP5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Signal Processing Systems
AbbreviationJ. Signal Process. Syst.
ISSN (print)1939-8018
ISSN (online)1939-8115
ScopeHardware and Architecture
Information Systems
Signal Processing
Control and Systems Engineering
Modelling and Simulation
Theoretical Computer Science

Other styles