How to format your references using the Infection, Genetics and Evolution citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Infection, Genetics and Evolution. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fratzl, P., 2015. Imaging techniques: Extra dimension for bone analysis. Nature 527, 308–309.
A journal article with 2 authors
Scully, R., Livingston, D.M., 2000. In search of the tumour-suppressor functions of BRCA1 and BRCA2. Nature 408, 429–432.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gershman, S.J., Horvitz, E.J., Tenenbaum, J.B., 2015. Computational rationality: A converging paradigm for intelligence in brains, minds, and machines. Science 349, 273–278.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gao, X., Zhang, H., Zhuang, W., Yuan, G., Sun, T., Jiang, X., Zhou, Z., Yuan, H., Zhang, Z., Dong, H., 2014. PEDF and PEDF-derived peptide 44mer protect cardiomyocytes against hypoxia-induced apoptosis and necroptosis via anti-oxidative effect. Sci. Rep. 4, 5637.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
King, M., 2011. Process Control. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Lambrechts, J., 2016. Microsensing Networks for Sustainable Cities, 1st ed. 2016. ed, Smart Sensors, Measurement and Instrumentation. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Strange, H., Zwiggelaar, R., 2014. Intrinsic Dimensionality, in: Zwiggelaar, R. (Ed.), Open Problems in Spectral Dimensionality Reduction, SpringerBriefs in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 41–52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Infection, Genetics and Evolution.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2016. Scientists See How The Seven Sisters Spin [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1989. FAA’s Voice Communications and Administrative Computer Systems (No. T-IMTEC-89-3). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
LeBlanc, L., 2009. Group home placement for children with serious emotional disturbance: A grant proposal project (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Caschetta, M.B., 2011. What Wasn’t Passed On. New York Times ST6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fratzl, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Fratzl, 2015; Scully and Livingston, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Scully and Livingston, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Gao et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInfection, Genetics and Evolution
AbbreviationInfect. Genet. Evol.
ISSN (print)1567-1348
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Molecular Biology
Infectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

Other styles