How to format your references using the Infection, Genetics and Evolution citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Infection, Genetics and Evolution. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nelson, J., 2001. Solar energy. Solar cells by self-assembly? Science 293, 1059–1060.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schachman, H.K., Cassman, M., 2009. Retrospective. Ruth L. Kirschstein (1926-2009). Science 326, 947.
A journal article with 3 authors
Luo, C., Wang, X., Liu, H., 2014. Controllability of time-delayed Boolean multiplex control networks under asynchronous stochastic update. Sci. Rep. 4, 7522.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hoang, Q.Q., Sicheri, F., Howard, A.J., Yang, D.S.C., 2003. Bone recognition mechanism of porcine osteocalcin from crystal structure. Nature 425, 977–980.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sharma, Y.C., 2011. A Guide to the Economic Removal of Metals from Aqueous Solutions. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Sassa, K., Canuti, P., Yin, Y. (Eds.), 2014. Landslide Science for a Safer Geoenvironment: Vol.1: The International Programme on Landslides (IPL). Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Chaudhary, M., Kumar, A., 2015. DOM Manipulation with jQuery, in: Kumar, A. (Ed.), Practical JQuery. Apress, Berkeley, CA, pp. 75–98.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Infection, Genetics and Evolution.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. The Public Must Speak Up About Gene Editing – Beyond Embryo Modification [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1978. Assessing Social Program Impact Evaluations: A Checklist Approach (No. PAD-79-2). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Broussard, J., 2014. An Analysis of Corporal Punishment Practices in the State of Georgia (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schmidt, M.S., 2017. Officials Cancel Plans to Build New Headquarters for the F.B.I. New York Times A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nelson, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Nelson, 2001; Schachman and Cassman, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Schachman and Cassman, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Hoang et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleInfection, Genetics and Evolution
AbbreviationInfect. Genet. Evol.
ISSN (print)1567-1348
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Molecular Biology
Infectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

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