How to format your references using the Infection, Genetics and Evolution citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Infection, Genetics and Evolution. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Robinson, P.J., 2007. Neuroscience. How to fill a synapse. Science 316, 551–553.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mojzsis, S.J., Harrison, T.M., 2002. Origin and significance of Archean quartzose rocks at Akilia, Greenland. Science 298, 917; discussion 917.
A journal article with 3 authors
Trautt, Z.T., Upmanyu, M., Karma, A., 2006. Interface mobility from interface random walk. Science 314, 632–635.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Deng, Z., Jiang, Y., Wang, W., Cheng, L., Li, W., Lu, W., Jia, H., Liu, W., Zhou, J., Chen, H., 2014. Indium segregation measured in InGaN quantum well layer. Sci. Rep. 4, 6734.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dayton, G., 2014. Trade Mindfully. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Grimshaw, R. (Ed.), 2005. Nonlinear Waves in Fluids: Recent Advances and Modern Applications, CISM International Centre for Mechanical Sciences, Courses and Lectures. Springer, Vienna.
A chapter in an edited book
Tsikalas, F., Faleide, J.I., Werner, S.C., Torsvik, T., Gudlaugsson, S.T., Eldholm, O., 2011. Impact Geophysics and Modelling, in: Tsikalas, F., Dypvik, H., Smelror, M. (Eds.), The Mjølnir Impact Event and Its Consequences: Geology and Geophysics of a Late Jurassic/Early Cretaceous Marine Impact Event, Impact Studies. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 75–137.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Infection, Genetics and Evolution.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Starving Cancer Cells Of Sugar Could Be The Key To Future Treatment [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2014. Technology Transfer: Federal Laboratory Consortium Should Increase Communication with Potential Customers to Improve Initiatives (No. GAO-15-127). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Janowiecki, S., 2015. The evolutionary status of high and extremely low surface brightness dwarf galaxies (Doctoral dissertation). Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W., 2011. Two Rulings Find Cuts In Pensions Permissible. New York Times B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Robinson, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Mojzsis and Harrison, 2002; Robinson, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mojzsis and Harrison, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Deng et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInfection, Genetics and Evolution
AbbreviationInfect. Genet. Evol.
ISSN (print)1567-1348
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Molecular Biology
Infectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

Other styles