How to format your references using the Philosophia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Philosophia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gurnett, D. A. (2006). Obituary: James A. Van Allen (1914-2006). Nature, 443(7108), 158.
A journal article with 2 authors
Milad, M. R., & Quirk, G. J. (2002). Neurons in medial prefrontal cortex signal memory for fear extinction. Nature, 420(6911), 70–74.
A journal article with 3 authors
Regenauer-Lieb, K., Weinberg, R. F., & Rosenbaum, G. (2006). The effect of energy feedbacks on continental strength. Nature, 442(7098), 67–70.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Bonfil, R., Meÿer, M., Scholl, M. C., Johnson, R., O’Brien, S., Oosthuizen, H., et al. (2005). Transoceanic migration, spatial dynamics, and population linkages of white sharks. Science (New York, N.Y.), 310(5745), 100–103.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lastovetsky, A. (2003). Parallel Computing on Heterogeneous Networks. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Lionetti, T. M., Snyder, E. P., & Christner, R. W. (Eds.). (2011). A Practical Guide to Building Professional Competencies in School Psychology. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Djordjevic, I., Ryan, W., & Vasic, B. (2010). Graph-Based Codes. In W. Ryan & B. Vasic (Eds.), Coding for Optical Channels (pp. 179–206). Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Philosophia.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015, April 14). Curiosity Rover Finds Evidence Of Liquid Water On Mars. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1996). Energy Research: Recovery of Federal Investment in Technology Development Projects (No. T-RCED-96-225). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Uthe, P. B. (2010). The development of polycationic materials for gene delivery applications (Doctoral dissertation). University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kinsley, M. (2017, May 27). Paid Leave Counts as Progress. New York Times, p. SR3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gurnett 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Gurnett 2006; Milad and Quirk 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Milad and Quirk 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Bonfil et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhilosophia
AbbreviationPhilosophia (Ramat Gan)
ISSN (print)0048-3893
ISSN (online)1574-9274

Other styles