How to format your references using the Philosophia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Philosophia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Knapp, S. (2008). Genetics. Celebrating spuds. Science (New York, N.Y.), 321(5886), 206–207.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wagner, W. R., & Griffith, B. P. (2010). Reconstructing the lung. Science (New York, N.Y.), 329(5991), 520–522.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bloch, I., I., Hansch, T. W., & Esslinger, T. (2000). Measurement of the spatial coherence of a trapped Bose gas at the phase transition. Nature, 403(6766), 166–170.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Takasaki, T., Hatakeyama, K., Suzuki, G., Watanabe, M., Isogai, A., & Hinata, K. (2000). The S receptor kinase determines self-incompatibility in Brassica stigma. Nature, 403(6772), 913–916.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kill, R. (2012). The BRC Global Standard for Food Safety. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Zhang, J., He, J.-H., & Fu, Y. (Eds.). (2005). Computational and Information Science: First International Symposium, CIS 2004, Shanghai, China, December 16-18, 2004. Proceedings (Vol. 3314). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Cao, F., & Bouthemy, P. (2007). A General Principled Method for Image Similarity Validation. In S. Marchand-Maillet, E. Bruno, A. Nürnberger, & M. Detyniecki (Eds.), Adaptive Multimedia Retrieval: User, Context, and Feedback: 4th International Workshop, AMR 2006, Geneva, Switzerland, July 27-28, 2006, Revised Selected Papers (pp. 57–70). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Philosophia.

Blog post
Evans, K. (2017, March 21). The World’s Healthiest Hearts Belong To The Tsimane People Of Bolivia. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1992). NASA Certification of Funds (No. AFMD-93-30ML). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mott, C. R. (2010). Sun compass orientation in juvenile green sea turtles (Doctoral dissertation). Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2010, March 19). More Teams Would Ruin a Great Thing. New York Times, p. B14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Knapp 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Knapp 2008; Wagner and Griffith 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wagner and Griffith 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Takasaki et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhilosophia
AbbreviationPhilosophia (Ramat Gan)
ISSN (print)0048-3893
ISSN (online)1574-9274

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