How to format your references using the Philosophia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Philosophia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Li, W. K. W. (2002). Macroecological patterns of phytoplankton in the northwestern North Atlantic Ocean. Nature, 419(6903), 154–157.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shraiman, B. I., & Siggia, E. D. (2000). Scalar turbulence. Nature, 405(6787), 639–646.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tsukahara, T., Tanno, Y., & Watanabe, Y. (2010). Phosphorylation of the CPC by Cdk1 promotes chromosome bi-orientation. Nature, 467(7316), 719–723.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Lee, T. I., Causton, H. C., Holstege, F. C., Shen, W. C., Hannett, N., Jennings, E. G., et al. (2000). Redundant roles for the TFIID and SAGA complexes in global transcription. Nature, 405(6787), 701–704.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hollins, C. (2012). Basic Guide to Anatomy and Physiology for Dental Care Professionals. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.,.
An edited book
Bull, L., Bernadó-Mansilla, E., & Holmes, J. (Eds.). (2008). Learning Classifier Systems in Data Mining (Vol. 125). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Warren, J. F. (2016). Philippine Typhoons Since the Seventeenth Century. In G. Bankoff & J. Christensen (Eds.), Natural Hazards and Peoples in the Indian Ocean World: Bordering on Danger (pp. 105–141). New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Philosophia.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015, January 9). Corn’s Surprisingly Complicated Voyage Into the American Southwest. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2008). Bureau of Indian Education: Improving Interior’s Assistance Would Aid Tribal Groups Developing Academic Accountability Systems (No. GAO-08-1125T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Partma, L. (2009). Media: Pretrial publicity and its effects (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
DAVID KELLY; David Kelly is an editor of The Book Review. (1990, May 20). “I CAN POP I CAN BREAK I CAN SLIDE AND JERK.” New York Times, p. 744.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Li 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Li 2002; Shraiman and Siggia 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Shraiman and Siggia 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Lee et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhilosophia
AbbreviationPhilosophia (Ramat Gan)
ISSN (print)0048-3893
ISSN (online)1574-9274

Other styles