How to format your references using the Philosophia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Philosophia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Samardzija, M. R. (2007). Science and law. The obvious war. Science (New York, N.Y.), 315(5809), 190–191.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hamilton, D. P., & Krüger, H. (2008). The sculpting of Jupiter’s gossamer rings by its shadow. Nature, 453(7191), 72–75.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bloom, J. D., Gong, L. I., & Baltimore, D. (2010). Permissive secondary mutations enable the evolution of influenza oseltamivir resistance. Science (New York, N.Y.), 328(5983), 1272–1275.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Gänsicke, B. T., Koester, D., Girven, J., Marsh, T. R., & Steeghs, D. (2010). Two white dwarfs with oxygen-rich atmospheres. Science (New York, N.Y.), 327(5962), 188–190.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Evans, A. J. (2014). Markets for Managers. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Campora, J., & Giambastiani, G. (Eds.). (2011). Olefin Upgrading Catalysis by Nitrogen-based Metal Complexes I: State-of-the-art and Perspectives (Vol. 34). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Wang, W., Chen, L., Jie, J., Zhao, Y., & Zhang, J. (2012). A Novel Multi-objective Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Flow Shop Scheduling Problems. In D.-S. Huang, Y. Gan, P. Gupta, & M. M. Gromiha (Eds.), Advanced Intelligent Computing Theories and Applications. With Aspects of Artificial Intelligence: 7th International Conference, ICIC 2011, Zhengzhou, China, August 11-14, 2011, Revised Selected Papers (pp. 24–31). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Philosophia.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2015, October 29). Scientists Explain Exactly What’s Happening To Your Brain And Body Right Before You Die. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2001). Alternative Market Mechanisms for the Student Loan Program (No. GAO-02-84SP). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bai, H. (2008). High Temperature Proton-Exchange and Fuel Processing Membranes for Fuel Cells and Other Applications (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gordon, M. R., & Nechepurenko, I. (2017, June 19). U.S. Is Warned After It Downs Syrian Fighter. New York Times, p. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Samardzija 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Hamilton and Krüger 2008; Samardzija 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hamilton and Krüger 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Gänsicke et al. 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhilosophia
AbbreviationPhilosophia (Ramat Gan)
ISSN (print)0048-3893
ISSN (online)1574-9274

Other styles