How to format your references using the Philosophia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Philosophia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lehmann, J. (2007). A handful of carbon. Nature, 447(7141), 143–144.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gros, J., & Tabin, C. J. (2014). Vertebrate limb bud formation is initiated by localized epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Science (New York, N.Y.), 343(6176), 1253–1256.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gubbins, D., Jones, A. L., & Finlay, C. C. (2006). Fall in Earth’s magnetic field is erratic. Science (New York, N.Y.), 312(5775), 900–902.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Ferraz, G., Nichols, J. D., Hines, J. E., Stouffer, P. C., Bierregaard, R. O., Jr, & Lovejoy, T. E. (2007). A large-scale deforestation experiment: effects of patch area and isolation on Amazon birds. Science (New York, N.Y.), 315(5809), 238–241.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Menk, F. W., & Waters, C. L. (2013). Magnetoseismology. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
D’Alessio, S. (Ed.). (2011). Inclusive Education in Italy: A Critical Analysis of the Policy of Integrazione Scolastica (Vol. 10). Rotterdam: SensePublishers.
A chapter in an edited book
Siebert, C., Rödiger, T., Geyer, S., Laronne, J. B., Hillel, N., Sauter, M., & Mallast, U. (2016). Multidisciplinary Investigations of the Transboundary Dead Sea Basin and Its Water Resources. In D. Borchardt, J. J. Bogardi, & R. B. Ibisch (Eds.), Integrated Water Resources Management: Concept, Research and Implementation (pp. 107–127). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Philosophia.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, August 13). Meet Butterfly, A Rare Sheep-Goat Hybrid. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1994). GAO Work Related to ESEA of 1965 (No. HEHS-94-156R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fearrington, N. D. (2008). The relationship between fathers’ pre -natal involvement with the mother and post -natal involvement with the child(ren) (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hu, W., & Remnick, N. (2015, August 4). Belated Focus on Prime Suspect in an Outbreak. New York Times, p. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lehmann 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Gros and Tabin 2014; Lehmann 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gros and Tabin 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Ferraz et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhilosophia
AbbreviationPhilosophia (Ramat Gan)
ISSN (print)0048-3893
ISSN (online)1574-9274

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