How to format your references using the Philosophia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Philosophia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Singer, M. (2004). Education. The evolution of postdocs. Science (New York, N.Y.), 306(5694), 232.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kaya, M., & Higuchi, H. (2010). Nonlinear elasticity and an 8-nm working stroke of single myosin molecules in myofilaments. Science (New York, N.Y.), 329(5992), 686–689.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ikegami, H., Tsutsumi, Y., & Kono, K. (2013). Chiral symmetry breaking in superfluid 3He-A. Science (New York, N.Y.), 341(6141), 59–62.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Tumbula, D. L., Becker, H. D., Chang, W. Z., & Söll, D. (2000). Domain-specific recruitment of amide amino acids for protein synthesis. Nature, 407(6800), 106–110.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Adams, F., & Aizawa, K. (2010). The Bounds of Cognition. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Backhaus, J. G. (Ed.). (2012). The Liberation of the Serfs: The Economics of Unfree Labor (Vol. 14). New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Dragomirescu, H., & Filip, F. G. (2008). The Knowledge Society Agenda in Romania: From Experts’ Vision to Public Perception. In M. D. Lytras, J. M. Carroll, E. Damiani, R. D. Tennyson, D. Avison, G. Vossen, & P. Ordonez De Pablos (Eds.), The Open Knowlege Society. A Computer Science and Information Systems Manifesto: First World Summit on the Knowledge Society, WSKS 2008, Athens, Greece, September 24-26, 2008. Proceedings (pp. 24–31). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Philosophia.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, July 15). Fly-By Missions: What Is The Point When We Have The Technology To Go Into Orbit? IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1971). Influence Of Public Affairs Organizations On Information And Advertising Programs (No. B-161939). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sidwell, M. D. (2017). Indirect measures as predictors of social skills observed through means of direct observation (Doctoral dissertation). Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2017, October 16). Dodgers’ Turner Delivers Decisive Final Blow in a Battle of Bullpens. New York Times, p. D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Singer 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Kaya and Higuchi 2010; Singer 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kaya and Higuchi 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Tumbula et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhilosophia
AbbreviationPhilosophia (Ramat Gan)
ISSN (print)0048-3893
ISSN (online)1574-9274

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