How to format your references using the Pharmacy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pharmacy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lovelock, J. Gaia: The Living Earth. Nature 2003, 426, 769–770.
A journal article with 2 authors
O’Higgins, P.; Elton, S. Anthropology. Walking on Trees. Science 2007, 316, 1292–1294.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bali, E.; Audétat, A.; Keppler, H. Water and Hydrogen Are Immiscible in Earth’s Mantle. Nature 2013, 495, 220–222.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Rosebeck, S.; Madden, L.; Jin, X.; Gu, S.; Apel, I.J.; Appert, A.; Hamoudi, R.A.; Noels, H.; Sagaert, X.; Van Loo, P.; et al. Cleavage of NIK by the API2-MALT1 Fusion Oncoprotein Leads to Noncanonical NF-KappaB Activation. Science 2011, 331, 468–472.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kuzmeski, M. The Connectors; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2009; ISBN 9781118257890.
An edited book
The University According to Humboldt: History, Policy, and Future Possibilities; Backhaus, J.G., Ed.; SpringerBriefs in Economics; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; Vol. 89; ISBN 9783319138558.
A chapter in an edited book
Daly, K.M. Health as a Social Media. In The New World of Transitioned Media: Digital Realignment and Industry Transformation; Einav, G., Ed.; The Economics of Information, Communication, and Entertainment; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; pp. 35–51 ISBN 9783319090085.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pharmacy.

Blog post
Davis, J. Self-Driving Car Travels 3,400 Miles Across America (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Internet of Things: Communities Deploy Projects by Combining Federal Support with Other Funds and Expertise; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2017;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gros, T.R. A Templated Agarose Scaffold for Axon Guidance in the Central and Peripheral Nervous System. Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego: La Jolla, CA, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leland, J. Loft Life: Music, Stretching and Leftovers. New York Times 2016, MB2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePharmacy
AbbreviationPharmacy (Basel)
ISSN (online)2226-4787

Other styles