How to format your references using the Pharmacy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pharmacy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gupta, S. Avoiding Ambiguity. Nature 2001, 412, 589.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cheetham, S.W.; Brand, A.H. Cell Biology. Insulin Finds Its Niche. Science 2013, 340, 817–818.
A journal article with 3 authors
Männikkö, R.; Elinder, F.; Larsson, H.P. Voltage-Sensing Mechanism Is Conserved among Ion Channels Gated by Opposite Voltages. Nature 2002, 419, 837–841.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ren, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Liu, R.Z.; Fenstermacher, D.A.; Wright, K.L.; Teer, J.K.; Wu, J. JAK1 Truncating Mutations in Gynecologic Cancer Define New Role of Cancer-Associated Protein Tyrosine Kinase Aberrations. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 3042.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Richards, S.A.; Hollerton, J.C. Essential Practical NMR for Organic Chemistry; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2010; ISBN 9780470976401.
An edited book
Solar to Chemical Energy Conversion: Theory and Application; Sugiyama, M., Fujii, K., Nakamura, S., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Energy; 1st ed. 2016.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; Vol. 32; ISBN 9783319253985.
A chapter in an edited book
Heinrich, B. Exchange Coupling in Magnetic Multilayers. In Magnetic Heterostructures: Advances and Perspectives in Spinstructures and Spintransport; Zabel, H., Bader, S.D., Eds.; Springer Tracts in Modern Physics; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008; pp. 185–250 ISBN 9783540734611.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pharmacy.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Bionic Power Trousers Could Help Us Get Up The Stairs Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Student Financial Aid: Characteristics of Jobs Provided Through the College Work-Study Program; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1992;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bowmar, J.S. Building Energy Efficiency and Resilience in the United States, One Disaster at a Time: Fostering Green Building Principles through Disaster Assistance. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University: Washington, DC, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, J.; Kovaleski, S.F. Actor’s Past Surfaces in Prosecutors’ Investigation of Penn State. New York Times 2016, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePharmacy
AbbreviationPharmacy (Basel)
ISSN (online)2226-4787

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