How to format your references using the Pharmacognosy Reviews citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pharmacognosy Reviews. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marine JC. Journal club. A cancer geneticist looks at the link between small RNA molecules and cancer. Nature 2010;464(7293):1249.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yea SS, Fruman DA. Cell signaling. New mTOR targets Grb attention. Science 2011;332(6035):1270–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pál C, Papp B, Hurst LD. Genomic function: Rate of evolution and gene dispensability. Nature 2003;421(6922):496–7; discussion 497-8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Cordier P, Ungár T, Zsoldos L, Tichy G. Dislocation creep in MgSiO3 perovskite at conditions of the Earth’s uppermost lower mantle. Nature 2004;428(6985):837–40.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Padgett S. Profiling the Fraudster. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2014.
An edited book
Gałajda D, Zakrajewski P, Pawlak M, editors. Researching Second Language Learning and Teaching from a Psycholinguistic Perspective: Studies in Honour of Danuta Gabryś-Barker. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Cartier P, Dhombres J, Heinzmann G, Villani C. Conclusion. In: Dhombres J, Heinzmann G, Villani C, editors. Freedom in Mathematics. New Delhi: Springer India; 2016. page 111–2.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pharmacognosy Reviews.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. NASA Delays First Manned Mission Of Mars-Bound Orion Spacecraft To 2023 [Internet]. IFLScience2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Airline Competition: Impact of FAA Legislation on Passenger Facilities Charges and Trust Fund Spending. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Damiano ES. The effects of psychological stress on physical health over time. 2010;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cook L, Olsen PR. It Started at the Gas Pump. New York Times2009;BU9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePharmacognosy Reviews
AbbreviationPharmacogn. Rev.
ISSN (print)0973-7847
ISSN (online)0976-2787
ScopePlant Science
Complementary and alternative medicine
Drug Discovery

Other styles