How to format your references using the Pharmacognosy Reviews citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pharmacognosy Reviews. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Medlyn BE. Comment on “Drought-induced reduction in global terrestrial net primary production from 2000 through 2009.” Science 2011;333(6046):1093; author reply 1093.
A journal article with 2 authors
Largeron M, Fleury M-B. Chemistry. Bioinspired oxidation catalysts. Science 2013;339(6115):43–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tyler RH, Maus S, Lühr H. Satellite observations of magnetic fields due to ocean tidal flow. Science 2003;299(5604):239–41.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Smalley R Jr, Ellis MA, Paul J, Van Arsdale RB. Space geodetic evidence for rapid strain rates in the New Madrid seismic zone of central USA. Nature 2005;435(7045):1088–90.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Benslama M, Batatia H, Messai A. Transitions from Digital Communications to Quantum Communications. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
Katsikis PD, Schoenberger SP, Pulendran B, editors. Crossroads Between Innate and Adaptive Immunity IV. New York, NY: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Giliopoulos DJ, Triantafyllidis KS, Gournis D. Chemical Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes for Dispersion in Epoxy Matrices. In: Paipetis A, Kostopoulos V, editors. Carbon Nanotube Enhanced Aerospace Composite Materials: A New Generation of Multifunctional Hybrid Structural Composites. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013. page 155–83.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pharmacognosy Reviews.

Blog post
Andrew E. Malaria Vaccine Trial Yields Promising Results. IFLScience2014;


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Drug Education: Limited Progress in Program Evaluation. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Li J. Growth Prediction of New Fractures in the Shadows of Existing Hydraulic Fractures in Shale Gas Formations. 2015;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Fausset R. Black Man’s Shooting Recalls Southern Wounds. New York Times2016;A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePharmacognosy Reviews
AbbreviationPharmacogn. Rev.
ISSN (print)0973-7847
ISSN (online)0976-2787
ScopePlant Science
Complementary and alternative medicine
Drug Discovery

Other styles