How to format your references using the International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Price RM (2012) IBI* series winner. How we got here: an inquiry-based activity about human evolution. Science 338:1554–1555
A journal article with 2 authors
Taylor RL, Mittlefehldt DW (2000) Missing martian meteorites. Science 290:273c–5c
A journal article with 3 authors
Holland G, Cassidy M, Ballentine CJ (2009) Meteorite Kr in Earth’s mantle suggests a late accretionary source for the atmosphere. Science 326:1522–1525
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Yonemitsu T, Kuroki C, Takahashi N, et al (2013) TRPA1 detects environmental chemicals and induces avoidance behavior and arousal from sleep. Sci Rep 3:3100

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Manuele FA (2007) Advanced Safety Management Focusing on Z10 and Serious Injury Prevention. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Doerffer P (2011) Unsteady Effects of Shock Wave Induced Separation. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Rahman SS ur, Schallehn E, Saake G (2011) ECOS: Evolutionary Column-Oriented Storage. In: Fernandes AAA, Gray AJG, Belhajjame K (eds) Advances in Databases: 28th British National Conference on Databases, BNCOD 28, Manchester, UK, July 12-14, 2011, Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 18–32

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Scientists Closer To Bringing A Species Back From Extinction. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1980) Opinion on the Legality of the Scheduled Transfer of Administrative Responsibility for Certain Law Enforcement Education Programs. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Armstrong A (2008) Tactic-Based Learning for collective learning systems. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chivers CJ, ERIN ARVEDLUND; C.J. Chivers reported from Moscow; Erin Arvedlund from Moscow, Buchalki;, Sophia Kishkovsky contributed reporting from Domodedovo International Airport for this article (2004) Investigators Seek Causes of Near-Simultaneous Jet Crashes in Russia That Killed 89. New York Times A12

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
AbbreviationInt. J. Comput. Assist. Radiol. Surg.
ISSN (print)1861-6410
ISSN (online)1861-6429
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Health Informatics
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles