How to format your references using the Pharmacogenomics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pharmacogenomics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Siegal M. Neuroscience. Signposts to the essence of language. Science. 305(5691), 1720–1721 (2004).
A journal article with 2 authors
Cheng L, AghaKouchak A. Nonstationary precipitation Intensity-Duration-Frequency curves for infrastructure design in a changing climate. Sci. Rep. 4, 7093 (2014).
A journal article with 3 authors
Jiang H, Huang N, Zhu Y. Analysis of wind-blown sand movement over transverse dunes. Sci. Rep. 4, 7114 (2014).
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Juillerat A, Bertonati C, Dubois G, et al. BurrH: a new modular DNA binding protein for genome engineering. Sci. Rep. 4, 3831 (2014).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Möller R, Pöter H, Schwarze K. Planen und Bauen mit Trapezprofilen und Sandwichelementen. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Trillas E, Bonissone PP, Magdalena L, Kacprzyk J, editors. Combining Experimentation and Theory: A Hommage to Abe Mamdani. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Varoto PS, Mineto AT. Nonlinear Dynamic Behavior of Cantilever Piezoelectric Energy Harvesters: Numerical and Experimental Investigation. In: Structural Health Monitoring, Volume 5: Proceedings of the 32nd IMAC, A Conference and Exposition on Structural Dynamics, 2014. Wicks A (Ed.), Springer International Publishing, Cham, 29–40 (2014).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pharmacogenomics.

Blog post
Luntz S. How To Find A Binary System’s Habitable Zone [Internet]. IFLScience (2014). Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Safety: Additional Oversight Planning by FAA Could Enhance Safety Risk Management. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ugwu RI. Perceptions of elementary teachers from an urban school district in Southern California regarding their inquiry-based science instructional practices, assessment methods, and professional development. (2012).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. Supreme Court Hears Medical Device Case. New York Times, C3 (2007).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePharmacogenomics
ISSN (print)1462-2416
ISSN (online)1744-8042
Molecular Medicine

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