How to format your references using the Pharmacogenomics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pharmacogenomics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Holt T. Subpoenaed in Syracuse. Nature. 407(6806), 841 (2000).
A journal article with 2 authors
Lee M, Wanke MC. Applied physics. Searching for a solid-state terahertz technology. Science. 316(5821), 64–65 (2007).
A journal article with 3 authors
Griesinger CB, Richards CD, Ashmore JF. Fast vesicle replenishment allows indefatigable signalling at the first auditory synapse. Nature. 435(7039), 212–215 (2005).
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Nimmo F, Hart SD, Korycansky DG, Agnor CB. Implications of an impact origin for the martian hemispheric dichotomy. Nature. 453(7199), 1220–1223 (2008).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yakushevich LV. Nonlinear Physics of DNA. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG.
An edited book
Mohammad A, Inamuddin, editors. Green Solvents II: Properties and Applications of Ionic Liquids. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Cárdenas OE, Romero E, Lloret A, Suriol J. Effect of Intermediate Stress on Collapse Behaviour of a Compacted Clayey Silt. In: Unsaturated Soils: Research and Applications: Volume 1. Mancuso C, Jommi C, D’Onza F (Eds.), Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 25–30 (2012).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pharmacogenomics.

Blog post
Fang J. Ancient Virus Revived From 700-Year-Old Caribou Feces [Internet]. IFLScience (2014). Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications: Initiatives Taken by Three States to Promote Increased Access and Investment. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schoenecker KD. Determinants of life satisfaction: Generated and ranked by undergraduate college students. (2010).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gordon MR. Pentagon Inquiry Blames ISIS for Civilian Deaths in U.S. Strike on Mosul. New York Times, A8 (2017).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePharmacogenomics
ISSN (print)1462-2416
ISSN (online)1744-8042
Molecular Medicine

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