How to format your references using the Pharmacogenomics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pharmacogenomics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goldston D. The new boss in town. Nature. 457(7225), 17 (2009).
A journal article with 2 authors
Trost BM, Dong G. Total synthesis of bryostatin 16 using atom-economical and chemoselective approaches. Nature. 456(7221), 485–488 (2008).
A journal article with 3 authors
Kim AM, Tingen CM, Woodruff TK. Sex bias in trials and treatment must end. Nature. 465(7299), 688–689 (2010).
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Xiao J, Long M, Li X, Xu H, Huang H, Gao Y. Theoretical prediction of electronic structure and carrier mobility in single-walled MoS₂ nanotubes. Sci. Rep. 4, 4327 (2014).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gable J, Herrmann T. Counselling Skills for Dietitians. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Hashim R, Abdul Majeed AB, editors. Proceedings of the Colloquium on Administrative Science and Technology: CoAST 2013. Springer, Singapore.
A chapter in an edited book
Naqvi SWA. Indian Ocean Margins. In: Carbon and Nutrient Fluxes in Continental Margins: A Global Synthesis. Liu K-K, Atkinson L, Quiñones R, Talaue-McManus L (Eds.), Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 171–210 (2010).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pharmacogenomics.

Blog post
Andrew D. Watch A Man Walk On Lava [Internet]. IFLScience (2014). Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. FAA Budget: Management Attention Needed for Future Investment Decisions. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dammann NM. Living in the edge: Community based governance in the aquatic terrestrial zone. (2009).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg B. Shot Caller. New York Times, C9 (2017).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePharmacogenomics
ISSN (print)1462-2416
ISSN (online)1744-8042
Molecular Medicine

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