How to format your references using the Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bers, D. M. (2002). “Cardiac excitation-contraction coupling.” Nature, 415(6868), 198–205.
A journal article with 2 authors
Butko, V. Y., and Adams, P. W. (2001). “Quantum metallicity in a two-dimensional insulator.” Nature, 409(6817), 161–164.
A journal article with 3 authors
Briggs, F., Mangun, G. R., and Usrey, W. M. (2013). “Attention enhances synaptic efficacy and the signal-to-noise ratio in neural circuits.” Nature, 499(7459), 476–480.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Rehmann, H., Arias-Palomo, E., Hadders, M. A., Schwede, F., Llorca, O., and Bos, J. L. (2008). “Structure of Epac2 in complex with a cyclic AMP analogue and RAP1B.” Nature, 455(7209), 124–127.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Greenspan, D. (2008). Numerical Solution of Ordinary Differential Equations. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Alvarez-Gaumé, L., Mangano, M., and Tsesmelis, E. (Eds.). (2012). From the PS to the LHC - 50 Years of Nobel Memories in High-Energy Physics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Graepel, R., Bodkin, J. V., and Brain, S. D. (2010). “Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and the Sensory Neurovascular Component.” Studies on Cardiovascular Disorders, H. Sauer, A. M. Shah, and F. R. M. Laurindo, eds., Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, 87–107.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016). “Here Are 10 Questions Google Asked A Computer Engineer In A Job Interview.” IFLScience, IFLScience (Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2011). Children’s Television Act: FCC Could Improve Efforts to Oversee Enforcement and Provide Public Information. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rountree, B. L. (2010). “Theory and practice of dynamic voltage /frequency scaling in the high performance computing environment.” Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard, B. (2017). “As Syrian War Drags On, Assad’s Grip Tightens.” New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bers 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Bers 2002; Butko and Adams 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Butko and Adams 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Rehmann et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Performance of Constructed Facilities
AbbreviationJ. Perform. Constr. Facil.
ISSN (print)0887-3828
ISSN (online)1943-5509
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering
Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
Building and Construction

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