How to format your references using the International Journal of Machine Learning and Cybernetics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Machine Learning and Cybernetics (Int. J. Mach. Learn. & Cyber.). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Friedlingstein P (2008) A steep road to climate stabilization. Nature 451:297–298
A journal article with 2 authors
Brinker CJ, Clem PG (2013) Materials science. Quartz on silicon. Science 340:818–819
A journal article with 3 authors
Nygård J, Cobden DH, Lindelof PE (2000) Kondo physics in carbon nanotubes. Nature 408:342–346
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Kennedy JA, Barabé F, Poeppl AG, et al (2007) Comment on “Tumor growth need not be driven by rare cancer stem cells.” Science 318:1722; author reply 1722

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Good PI, Hardin JW (2012) Common Errors in Statistics (And How to Avoid Them). John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Backhaus JG (2012) Two Centuries of Local Autonomy. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Šimberová S, Suk T (2013) Analysis of Dynamic Processes by Statistical Moments of High Orders. In: Ruiz-Shulcloper J, Sanniti di Baja G (eds) Progress in Pattern Recognition, Image Analysis, Computer Vision, and Applications: 18th Iberoamerican Congress, CIARP 2013, Havana, Cuba, November 20-23, 2013, Proceedings, Part I. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 33–40

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Machine Learning and Cybernetics.

Blog post
Hale T (2016) Watch As The Moon “Photobombs” A NASA Satellite’s View Of Earth. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1987) Financing Higher Education: Examples Comparing Existing and Proposed Student Aid Programs. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Manley Lima MC (2014) Commuter Students’ Social Integration: The Relationship Between Involvement in Extracurricular Activities and Sense of Belonging. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K (2002) Two Old Buildings Win Friends in High Places. New York Times 147

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Machine Learning and Cybernetics
ISSN (print)1868-8071
ISSN (online)1868-808X
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition

Other styles