How to format your references using the International Journal of Machine Learning and Cybernetics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Machine Learning and Cybernetics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bosch X (2000) Spain in quandary over French synchrotron. Nature 405:604
A journal article with 2 authors
Bartek J, Lukas J (2001) Cell cycle. Order from destruction. Science 294:66–67
A journal article with 3 authors
Prajeesh AG, Ashok K, Rao DVB (2013) Falling monsoon depression frequency: a Gray-Sikka conditions perspective. Sci Rep 3:2989
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Sigel R, Fytas G, Vainos N, et al (2002) Pattern formation in homogeneous polymer solutions induced by a continuous-wave visible laser. Science 297:67–70

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hitchner JR (2017) Financial Valuation. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Devos AS, Blickman JG (2008) Radiological Imaging of the Digestive Tract in Infants and Children. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Scherer L, Rossi JJ (2005) Cancer Therapeutic Applications of Ribozymes and RNAi. In: Curiel DT, Douglas JT (eds) Cancer Gene Therapy. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, pp 51–63

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Machine Learning and Cybernetics.

Blog post
Luntz S (2014) Houdini Honey Badgers Can Escape From Anywhere. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1998) Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Actions Needed on Electronic Data Exchanges. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Olch R (2010) Low cost/no cost quality of life programs in non-profit theatre. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper M (2017) Venezuela Cancels Another Dudamel Tour. New York Times C3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Machine Learning and Cybernetics
ISSN (print)1868-8071
ISSN (online)1868-808X
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition

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