How to format your references using the The Medical Journal of Australia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Medical Journal of Australia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grayson M. Ageing. Nature. 2012 Dec 6;492(7427):S1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Higgins MJ, Graham SJH. Intellectual property. Balancing innovation and access: patent challenges tip the scales. Science. 2009 Oct 16;326(5951):370–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bailor MH, Sun X, Al-Hashimi HM. Topology links RNA secondary structure with global conformation, dynamics, and adaptation. Science. 2010 Jan 8;327(5962):202–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Sass HJ, Büldt G, Gessenich R, Hehn D, Neff D, Schlesinger R, et al. Structural alterations for proton translocation in the M state of wild-type bacteriorhodopsin. Nature. 2000 Aug 10;406(6796):649–53.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McCormick K, Salcedo J. SPSS reg Statistics for Data Analysis and Visualization. Indianapolis, Indiana: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2017.
An edited book
Sandau R, Roeser H-P, Valenzuela A, editors. Small Satellite Missions for Earth Observation: New Developments and Trends. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. XX, 455 p.
A chapter in an edited book
Andersen JV, Nowak A. A Psychological Galilean Principle for Price Movements: Fundamental Framework for Technical Analysis. In: Nowak A, editor. An Introduction to Socio-Finance. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. p. 77–91.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Medical Journal of Australia.

Blog post
Luntz S. Nearby “Venus Twin” Exoplanet Might Still Have Oxygen [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. The Federal Wind Energy Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977 Mar. Report No.: EMD-77-33.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lapizco-Encinas GC. Cooperative particle swarm optimization for combinatorial problems [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Morgan PL, Farkas G. Is Special Education Racist? New York Times. 2015 Jun 24;A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Medical Journal of Australia
AbbreviationMed. J. Aust.
ISSN (print)0025-729X
ISSN (online)1326-5377
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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