How to format your references using the The Medical Journal of Australia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Medical Journal of Australia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bogg J. Dr. Jekyll and Ms Hide. Nature. 2007 May 3;447(7140):114.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hoshi T, Lahiri S. Cell biology. Oxygen sensing: it’s a gas! Science. 2004 Dec 17;306(5704):2050–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
Reinhard J, Srinivasan MV, Zhang S. Olfaction: scent-triggered navigation in honeybees. Nature. 2004 Jan 29;427(6973):411.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Suo S-B, Qiu J-D, Shi S-P, Chen X, Liang R-P. PSEA: Kinase-specific prediction and analysis of human phosphorylation substrates. Sci Rep. 2014 Mar 31;4:4524.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brown T, Andrews GJ, Cummins S, Greenhough B, Lewis D, Power A. Health Geographies. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
Gelbukh AF, editor. Computational Linguistics and Intelligent Text Processing: 12th International Conference, CICLing 2011, Tokyo, Japan, February 20-26, 2011. Proceedings, Part I. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. XXII, 465 p. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; vol. 6608).
A chapter in an edited book
Barta A, Kalyna M, Lorković ZJ. Plant SR Proteins and Their Functions. In: Reddy ASN, Golovkin M, editors. Nuclear pre-mRNA Processing in Plants. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. p. 83–102. (Compans RW, Cooper MD, Honjo T, Koprowski H, Melchers F, Oldstone MBA, et al., editors. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Medical Journal of Australia.

Blog post
Hamilton K. Watch A Mongoose Fend Off Four Lions. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare Standards of Employee Conduct Need Improvement. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1979 Mar. Report No.: FPCD-79-29.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Aghaee M. Analysis of Dynamics and Optimal Control for an SIR Epidemiological Model with Time-varying Populations [Doctoral dissertation]. [Edwardsville, IL]: Southern Illinois University; 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Goodstein L, Shear MD. Trump’s Order on Religious Liberty Pleases Some, but Lets Down Conservatives. New York Times. 2017 May 4;A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Medical Journal of Australia
AbbreviationMed. J. Aust.
ISSN (print)0025-729X
ISSN (online)1326-5377
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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