How to format your references using the The Medical Journal of Australia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Medical Journal of Australia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Davies W. Palaeoanthropology: The time of the last Neanderthals. Nature. 2014 Aug 21;512(7514):260–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bozic I, Nowak MA. Cancer. Unwanted evolution. Science. 2013 Nov 22;342(6161):938–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Xue S, Calvin K, Li H. RNA recognition and cleavage by a splicing endonuclease. Science. 2006 May 12;312(5775):906–10.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Duan X, Niu C, Sahi V, Chen J, Parce JW, Empedocles S, et al. High-performance thin-film transistors using semiconductor nanowires and nanoribbons. Nature. 2003 Sep 18;425(6955):274–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Geng H. Data Center Handbook. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2014.
An edited book
Fischer-Hübner S, Duquenoy P, Zuccato A, Martucci L, editors. The Future of Identity in the Information Society: Proceedings of the Third IFIP WG 9.2, 9.6/11.6, 11.7/FIDIS International Summer School on The Future of Identity in the Information Society, Karlstad University, Sweden, August 4–10, 2007. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2008. XII, 461 p. (IFIP — The International Federation for Information Processing; vol. 262).
A chapter in an edited book
Orsini F, Erba PA, Cantini R, Lazzeri E, Sollini M, Cataldi AG, et al. Radiofarmaci diagnostici convenzionali. In: Volterrani D, Mariani G, Erba PA, editors. Fondamenti di medicina nucleare: Tecniche e applicazioni. Milano: Springer; 2010. p. 41–92.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Medical Journal of Australia.

Blog post
Andrews R. This Neat Animation Shows What 50 Years Of Volcanic Eruptions and Earthquakes Looks Like [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. An Analysis of Concerns in Federal Education Programs: Duplication of Services and Administrative Costs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1980 Apr. Report No.: HRD-80-18.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bleicher J. Scenario methods as a means for enhancing organizational learning: A Delphi study [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. Echoes of Glory Fade at a Fork in the Road. New York Times. 2009 Dec 1;B15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Medical Journal of Australia
AbbreviationMed. J. Aust.
ISSN (print)0025-729X
ISSN (online)1326-5377
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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