How to format your references using the The Medical Journal of Australia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Medical Journal of Australia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain C. Pharmaceutical industry must take its medicine. Nature. 2011 Feb 10;470(7333):141.
A journal article with 2 authors
Higley MJ, Strittmatter SM. Neuroscience. Lynx for braking plasticity. Science. 2010 Nov 26;330(6008):1189–90.
A journal article with 3 authors
Berné O, Marcelino N, Cernicharo J. Waves on the surface of the Orion molecular cloud. Nature. 2010 Aug 19;466(7309):947–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Sharon E, Galun M, Sharon D, Basri R, Brandt A. Hierarchy and adaptivity in segmenting visual scenes. Nature. 2006 Aug 17;442(7104):810–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Denham BE. Categorical Statistics for Communication Research. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
Malik A, Grohmann E, Akhtar R, editors. Environmental Deterioration and Human Health: Natural and anthropogenic determinants. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2014. XV, 421 p. 45 illus., 35 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
Yu TH, Fuller BW, Bannick JH, Rossey LM, Cunningham RK. Integrated Environment Management for Information Operations Testbeds. In: Goodall JR, Conti G, Ma KL, editors. VizSEC 2007: Proceedings of the Workshop on Visualization for Computer Security. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. p. 67–83. (Mathematics and Visualization).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Medical Journal of Australia.

Blog post
Andrew E. Meteorite Impact Turns Silica Into Stishovite In A Billionth Of A Second [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Procedures and Policies of the Energy Research and Development Administration. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1976 Dec. Report No.: B-187621.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Valadez I. A psycho-education peer support group for homeless youth: A grant proposal [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly S. Op-Art. New York Times. 2000 Aug 24;A27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Medical Journal of Australia
AbbreviationMed. J. Aust.
ISSN (print)0025-729X
ISSN (online)1326-5377
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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