How to format your references using the PharmacoEconomics Italian Research Articles citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for PharmacoEconomics Italian Research Articles. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Holz RW. Cell biology. Dynamin flexibility drives fission. Science. 2013;339:1392–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Falkowski PG, de Vargas C. Genomics and evolution. Shotgun sequencing in the sea: a blast from the past? Science. 2004;304:58–60.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Farihi J, Gänsicke BT, Koester D. Evidence for water in the rocky debris of a disrupted extrasolar minor planet. Science. 2013;342:218–20.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Heemsbergen DA, Berg MP, Loreau M, van Hal JR, Faber JH, Verhoef HA. Biodiversity effects on soil processes explained by interspecific functional dissimilarity. Science. 2004;306:1019–20.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Kupka HJ. Transitions in Molecular Systems. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2010.
An edited book
1. Lichtenstein GR, editor. Medical Therapy of Ulcerative Colitis. New York, NY: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Nahle S, Malouch N. Placement Algorithms for WiMAX Mesh Network. In: Balandin S, Moltchanov D, Koucheryavy Y, editors. Next Generation Teletraffic and Wired/Wireless Advanced Networking: 8th International Conference, NEW2AN and 1st Russian Conference on Smart Spaces, ruSMART 2008 St Petersburg, Russia, September 3-5, 2008 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. p. 37–48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for PharmacoEconomics Italian Research Articles.

Blog post
1. Fang J. Ancient Virus Revived From 700-Year-Old Caribou Feces. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Airline Competition: Industry Operating and Marketing Practices Limit Market Entry. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990 Aug. Report No.: RCED-90-147.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Manandhar R. Synthesis and Characterization of Some Novel Dinitrosyl Diphosphine Iron Complexes [Doctoral dissertation]. [Edwardsville, IL]: Southern Illinois University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Hu W. Hazing Abuses Mar Asian-American Fraternities. New York Times. 2015 Oct 12;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePharmacoEconomics Italian Research Articles
AbbreviationPharmacoecon. Ital. Res. Artic.
ISSN (print)1590-9158
ISSN (online)2035-6137
ScopeHealth Policy
Pharmacology (medical)

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