How to format your references using the PharmacoEconomics Italian Research Articles citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for PharmacoEconomics Italian Research Articles. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Sönnichsen C. Physics. Detecting intruders on the nanoscale. Science. 2011;332:1389–90.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Münck E, Bominaar EL. Chemistry. Bringing stability to highly reduced iron-sulfur clusters. Science. 2008;321:1452–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Hernlund JW, Thomas C, Tackley PJ. A doubling of the post-perovskite phase boundary and structure of the Earth’s lowermost mantle. Nature. 2005;434:882–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Saxena S, Chaudhary RP, Singh A, Awasthi S, Shukla S. Plasmonic micro lens for extraordinary transmission of broadband light. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5586.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Reeder L. Guide to Green Building Rating Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
1. Escher J, Guidotti P, Hieber M, Mucha P, Prüss JW, Shibata Y, et al., editors. Parabolic Problems: The Herbert Amann Festschrift. Basel: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Dudler A, Weiß K. Interlocking gear wheels – from training to practice in various professional fields. In: Krall H, Fürst J, Fontaine P, editors. Supervision in Psychodrama: Experiential Learning in Psychotherapy and Training. Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden; 2012. p. 57–72.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for PharmacoEconomics Italian Research Articles.

Blog post
1. Fang J. Virgin Birth Confirmed in World’s Longest Snake Species. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. School Facilities: Reported Condition and Costs to Repair Schools Funded by Bureau of Indian Affairs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997 Dec. Report No.: HEHS-98-47.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Coar H. Using mandalas to support grieving female adolescents: A case study [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kanter J. E.U. Endorses Guidelines to Negotiate ‘Brexit.’ New York Times. 2017 Apr 29;A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePharmacoEconomics Italian Research Articles
AbbreviationPharmacoecon. Ital. Res. Artic.
ISSN (print)1590-9158
ISSN (online)2035-6137
ScopeHealth Policy
Pharmacology (medical)

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