How to format your references using the PharmacoEconomics Italian Research Articles citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for PharmacoEconomics Italian Research Articles. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Willyard C. Risk factors: riddle of the rays. Nature. 2014;515:S112-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Becker A, Grünewald U. Disaster management. Flood risk in Central Europe. Science. 2003;300:1099.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Quax R, Kandhai D, Sloot PMA. Information dissipation as an early-warning signal for the Lehman Brothers collapse in financial time series. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1898.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Thomas PC, Veverka J, Robinson MS, Murchie S. Shoemaker crater as the source of most ejecta blocks on the asteroid 433 Eros. Nature. 2001;413:394–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Cornier J, Owen A, Kwade A, Van de Voorde M. Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology: Innovation and Production. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2017.
An edited book
1. Bora PK, Prasanna SRM, Sarma KK, Saikia N, editors. Advances in Communication and Computing. New Delhi: Springer India; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Rhee C, Han S, Choi B, Song J. Scalable Overlay Multicast Architecture. In: Min G, Martino BD, Yang LT, Guo M, Rünger G, editors. Frontiers of High Performance Computing and Networking – ISPA 2006 Workshops: ISPA 2006 International Workshops, FHPCN, XHPC, S-GRACE, GridGIS, HPC-GTP, PDCE, ParDMCom, WOMP, ISDF, and UPWN, Sorrento, Italy, December 4-7, 2006 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006. p. 31–6.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for PharmacoEconomics Italian Research Articles.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. What Would Happen If The Planet Stopped Spinning? [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. High Performance Computing and Communications: New Program Direction Would Benefit from a More Focused Effort. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994 Nov. Report No.: AIMD-95-6.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Alayed RA. Creating a culture of safety using electronic medical records as a tool [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Cooper H. Pentagon, Seeking Transparency, Says 11,000 U.S. Troops Are in Afghanistan. New York Times. 2017 Aug 30;A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePharmacoEconomics Italian Research Articles
AbbreviationPharmacoecon. Ital. Res. Artic.
ISSN (print)1590-9158
ISSN (online)2035-6137
ScopeHealth Policy
Pharmacology (medical)

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