How to format your references using the PharmacoEconomics Italian Research Articles citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for PharmacoEconomics Italian Research Articles. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Koen D. Nuts and bolts. Seeking feedback. Nature. 2004;430:592.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Taylor JRA, Kier WM. Biomechanics: a pneumo-hydrostatic skeleton in land crabs. Nature. 2006;440:1005.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Magavi SS, Leavitt BR, Macklis JD. Induction of neurogenesis in the neocortex of adult mice. Nature. 2000;405:951–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Perets HB, Gal-Yam A, Mazzali PA, Arnett D, Kagan D, Filippenko AV, et al. A faint type of supernova from a white dwarf with a helium-rich companion. Nature. 2010;465:322–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Seeber P, Shander A. Basics of Blood Management. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2012.
An edited book
1. Rashid A, Ossher H, editors. Transactions on Aspect-Oriented Software Development V. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Khanna AK, Farag E. Anesthesia for Spine Osteotomy Surgery. In: Wang Y, Boachie-Adjei O, Lenke L, editors. Spinal Osteotomy. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2015. p. 37–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for PharmacoEconomics Italian Research Articles.

Blog post
1. Davis J. Watch Polar Bears Live From The Arctic Tundra. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. General Aviation: Observations Related to Liability Insurance Requirements and Coverage for Aircraft Owners. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2015 Sep. Report No.: GAO-15-740.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Jakubowski JK. Making character education a reality: An investigation of secondary teachers’ perspectives toward implementation [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Southard S. Nagasaki, the Forgotten City. New York Times. 2015 Aug 8;A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePharmacoEconomics Italian Research Articles
AbbreviationPharmacoecon. Ital. Res. Artic.
ISSN (print)1590-9158
ISSN (online)2035-6137
ScopeHealth Policy
Pharmacology (medical)

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