How to format your references using the Frontiers in HIV and AIDS citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in HIV and AIDS. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Russo, E. (2004). The changing length of PhDs. Nature 431, 382–383.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dennis, C., and Byrne, N. (2004). Harvesting biotechnology. Nature 429, 1.
A journal article with 3 authors
Halley, J. M., Iwasa, Y., and Vokou, D. (2013). Comment on “Extinction debt and windows of conservation opportunity in the Brazilian Amazon.” Science 339, 271.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Liu, J., Deng, Q., Tao, D., Yang, K., Zhang, L., Liang, Z., et al. (2014). Preparation of protein imprinted materials by hierarchical imprinting techniques and application in selective depletion of albumin from human serum. Sci. Rep. 4, 5487.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Horton, I. (2012). Ivor Horton’s Beginning Visual C++® 2012. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Nerem, R. M., Loring, J., McDevitt, T. C., Palecek, S. P., Schaffer, D. V., and Zandstra, P. W. eds. (2014). Stem Cell Engineering: A WTEC Global Assessment. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
MacDonald, M. B. (2016). “Critical Pedagogy of Listening,” in Remix and Life Hack in Hip Hop: Towards a Critical Pedagogy of Music, ed. M. B. MacDonald (Rotterdam: SensePublishers), 41–55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in HIV and AIDS.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014). Musician Composes Pi Song On Piano. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2006). Internet Infrastructure: DHS Faces Challenges in Developing a Joint Public/Private Recovery Plan. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Eslava Rios, J. (2015). Automatic melanoma detection in dermatological images.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M. (2010). As Calculated As Tie-Dye Can Get. New York Times, E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Russo, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Dennis and Byrne, 2004; Russo, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dennis and Byrne, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Liu et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in HIV and AIDS
AbbreviationFront. Immunol.
ISSN (online)1664-3224

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