How to format your references using the Frontiers in HIV and AIDS citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in HIV and AIDS. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Koenig, R. (2000). EUROPEAN SCIENCE: Research Behemoth Slated for Overhaul. Science 289, 2019b.
A journal article with 2 authors
Karkazis, K., and Jordan-Young, R. (2015). Science and society. Debating a testosterone “sex gap.” Science 348, 858–860.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gancarz-Kausch, A. M., Adank, D. N., and Dietz, D. M. (2014). Prolonged withdrawal following cocaine self-administration increases resistance to punishment in a cocaine binge. Sci. Rep. 4, 6876.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Chi, T. H., Wan, M., Zhao, K., Taniuchi, I., Chen, L., Littman, D. R., et al. (2002). Reciprocal regulation of CD4/CD8 expression by SWI/SNF-like BAF complexes. Nature 418, 195–199.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rachev, S. T., Kim, Y. S., Bianchi, M. L., and Fabozzi, F. J. (2011). Financial Models with Lévy Processes and Volatility Clustering. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Vidergor, H. E., and Harris, C. R. eds. (2015). Applied Practice for Educators of Gifted and Able Learners. Rotterdam: SensePublishers.
A chapter in an edited book
Wadkar, S., and Siddalingaiah, M. (2014). “Basics of MapReduce Development,” in Pro Apache Hadoop, ed. M. Siddalingaiah (Berkeley, CA: Apress), 73–106.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in HIV and AIDS.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2014). Amazing 3D Fractals Inspired By Faberge Eggs. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1980). Improving Social Security Administration Procedures for Acquiring ADP and Telecommunications Resources. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ma, D. (2010). Acyclic congeners of Cucurbit[n]uril and a related mechanistic study on the Cucurbit[n]uril forming reaction.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2007). A Devil in the Details, But Not the Constitution. New York Times, A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Koenig, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Koenig, 2000; Karkazis and Jordan-Young, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Karkazis and Jordan-Young, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Chi et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in HIV and AIDS
AbbreviationFront. Immunol.
ISSN (online)1664-3224

Other styles