How to format your references using the Frontiers in HIV and AIDS citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in HIV and AIDS. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. (2004). An equal chance. Nature 432, 931.
A journal article with 2 authors
Roberts, R. G., and Lian, O. B. (2015). Dating techniques: Illuminating the past. Nature 520, 438–439.
A journal article with 3 authors
Franke, K. J., Schulze, G., and Pascual, J. I. (2011). Competition of superconducting phenomena and Kondo screening at the nanoscale. Science 332, 940–944.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Schefuss, E., Schouten, S., Jansen, J. H. F., and Sinninghe Damsté, J. S. (2003). African vegetation controlled by tropical sea surface temperatures in the mid-Pleistocene period. Nature 422, 418–421.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ambaum, M. H. P. (2010). Thermal Physics of the Atmosphere. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Basili, V. R., Rombach, D., Schneider, K., Kitchenham, B., Pfahl, D., and Selby, R. W. eds. (2007). Empirical Software Engineering Issues. Critical Assessment and Future Directions: International Workshop, Dagstuhl Castle, Germany, June 26-30, 2006. Revised Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Martin, A. J. (2015). “Are These Testing Times, or Is It a Time to Test? Considering the Place of Tests in Students’ Academic Development,” in Controversies in Education: Orthodoxy and Heresy in Policy and Practice, eds. H. Proctor, P. Brownlee, and P. Freebody (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 55–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in HIV and AIDS.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). To Avoid Mantids, Stinkbugs Evolved To Hide In Plain Sight. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2015). Maritime Transportation: Implications of Using U.S. Liquefied-Natural-Gas Carriers for Exports. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Svarda, D. (2010). Man 2 Man.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2017). Kershaw Could Be Out as Long as Six Weeks. New York Times, B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik, 2004; Roberts and Lian, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Roberts and Lian, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Schefuss et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in HIV and AIDS
AbbreviationFront. Immunol.
ISSN (online)1664-3224

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