How to format your references using the Frontiers in HIV and AIDS citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in HIV and AIDS. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
MacWilliams, B. (2001). It’s a dog’s life for Siberian foxes. Nature 412, 845.
A journal article with 2 authors
Im, S. H., and Taghert, P. H. (2011). Neuroscience. A CRY to rise. Science 331, 1394–1395.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schirle, N. T., Sheu-Gruttadauria, J., and MacRae, I. J. (2014). Structural basis for microRNA targeting. Science 346, 608–613.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhao, Z., Liu, H., Luo, Y., Zhou, S., An, L., Wang, C., et al. (2014). Molecular evolution and functional divergence of tubulin superfamily in the fungal tree of life. Sci. Rep. 4, 6746.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Powsner, R. A., Palmer, M. R., and Powsner, E. R. (2013). Essentials of Nuclear Medicine Physics and Instrumentation. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Ioannidis, Y., Novikov, B., and Rachev, B. eds. (2007). Advances in Databases and Information Systems: 11th East European Conference, ADBIS 2007, Varna, Bulgaria, September 29-October 3, 2007. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Bordas, J. (2007). “STATUS OF THE ALBA PROJECT,” in Brilliant Light in Life and Material Sciences NATO Security through Science Series., eds. V. Tsakanov and H. Wiedemann (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands), 45–55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in HIV and AIDS.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2015). Unexplainable UFO Phenomena To Be Scientifically Analyzed In New Project. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1990). Air Force ADP Procurement: Contracting and Market Share Information. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Saperstein, A. M. (2009). Susceptibility to smoking and nicotine dependence in schizophrenia.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mueller, B. (2017). Police Mourn Slain Officer, as Do the Bronx Residents She Served. New York Times, A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (MacWilliams, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (MacWilliams, 2001; Im and Taghert, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Im and Taghert, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhao et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in HIV and AIDS
AbbreviationFront. Immunol.
ISSN (online)1664-3224

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