How to format your references using the Frontiers in HIV and AIDS citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in HIV and AIDS. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brady, O. (2014). Scale up the supply of experimental Ebola drugs. Nature 512, 233.
A journal article with 2 authors
Allen, M. R., and Lord, R. (2004). The blame game. Nature 432, 551–552.
A journal article with 3 authors
Singhal, N., Kumar, M., and Virdi, J. S. (2014). Molecular analysis of β-lactamase genes to understand their differential expression in strains of Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A. Sci. Rep. 4, 5270.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Gloeckler, G., Geiss, J., Schwadron, N. A., Fisk, L. A., Zurbuchen, T. H., Ipavich, F. M., et al. (2000). Interception of comet Hyakutake’s ion tail at a distance of 500 million kilometres. Nature 404, 576–578.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Knowles, R. (2008). 150 Contractual Problems and their Solutions. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
An edited book
Harper, R., Rauterberg, M., and Combetto, M. eds. (2006). Entertainment Computing - ICEC 2006: 5th International Conference, Cambridge, UK, September 20-22, 2006. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Fabian, M., Habala, P., Hájek, P., Montesinos, V., and Zizler, V. (2011). “Schauder Bases,” in Banach Space Theory: The Basis for Linear and Nonlinear Analysis CMS Books in Mathematics., eds. P. Habala, P. Hájek, V. Montesinos, and V. Zizler (New York, NY: Springer), 179–235.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in HIV and AIDS.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2017). African Lions Face Same Threats As Extinct Sabre-Toothed Cats. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2016). Public Transit: Observations on Recent Changes to the Capital Investment Grant Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Estrada Marroquin, E. M. (2013). Using support groups to help kinship caregivers transition youth to safe and productive community living: A grant proposal.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Marx, L. (2012). Still Dictating Orders, This Time at the Altar. New York Times, ST19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brady, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Allen and Lord, 2004; Brady, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Allen and Lord, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Gloeckler et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in HIV and AIDS
AbbreviationFront. Immunol.
ISSN (online)1664-3224

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