How to format your references using the Translational Respiratory Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Translational Respiratory Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Vunjak-Novakovic G. Cardiac biology: A protein for healing infarcted hearts. Nature. 2015;525:461–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Demaurex N, Distelhorst C. Cell biology. Apoptosis--the calcium connection. Science. 2003;300:65–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Hastings MG, Jarvis JC, Steig EJ. Anthropogenic impacts on nitrogen isotopes of ice-core nitrate. Science. 2009;324:1288.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Wildermuth S, Hofferberth S, Lesanovsky I, Haller E, Andersson LM, Groth S, et al. Bose-Einstein condensates: microscopic magnetic-field imaging. Nature. 2005;435:440.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Center for Chemical Process Safety. Guidelines for Chemical Process Quantitative Risk Analysis. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
1. Dym H, Oliveira MC de, Putinar M, editors. Mathematical Methods in Systems, Optimization, and Control: Festschrift in Honor of J. William Helton. Basel: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Charpentier É, Vézina N. Les effets exercés par les crises financières sur la force obligatoire des contrats: certitudes et incertitudes du droit québécois en matière d’imprévision. In: Başoğlu B, editor. The Effects of Financial Crises on the Binding Force of Contracts - Renegotiation, Rescission or Revision. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 59–81.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Translational Respiratory Medicine.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Single Therapy Session Cures 73% Of Insomniacs. IFLScience. 2015. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. University Funding: Patterns of Distribution of Federal Research Funds to Universities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Liburd-Shaddai JL. The experiences of remedial instructors at one urban community college: A case study. Doctoral dissertation. Capella University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Sisario B. Roll Over, Beyoncé: Chuck Berry’s Surprise. New York Times. 2016;:C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTranslational Respiratory Medicine
ISSN (print)2213-0802

Other styles