How to format your references using the Translational Respiratory Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Translational Respiratory Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Trivedi BP. Neuroscience: Dissecting appetite. Nature. 2014;508:S64-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Panthi D, Tsutsumi A. Micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cell based on a porous yttria-stabilized zirconia support. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5754.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Kavanagh KD, Evans AR, Jernvall J. Predicting evolutionary patterns of mammalian teeth from development. Nature. 2007;449:427–32.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Wu H-C, Mauit O, Coileáin CÓ, Syrlybekov A, Khalid A, Mouti A, et al. Magnetic and transport properties of epitaxial thin film MgFe2O4 grown on MgO (100) by molecular beam epitaxy. Sci Rep. 2014;4:7012.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Koepsell D. Who Owns You? Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
1. O¿Donnell RW. Intellectual Property in the Food Technology Industry: Protecting Your Innovation. New York, NY: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Tuschmann W. Collapsing and Almost Nonnegative Curvature. In: Bär C, Lohkamp J, Schwarz M, editors. Global Differential Geometry. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. p. 93–106.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Translational Respiratory Medicine.

Blog post
1. Fang J. Study Concludes That Women Who Squirt During Sex Are Actually Peeing. IFLScience. 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Implementing the Small Business Innovation Development Act--The First 2 Years. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1985.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Cordova M. The impact of a teacher training program on student engagement. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Greenhouse L. Court to Rule on What Constitutes Employer Retaliation. New York Times. 2005;:A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTranslational Respiratory Medicine
ISSN (print)2213-0802

Other styles