How to format your references using the Pharmaceutics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pharmaceutics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Carroll, S.B. Genetics and the making of Homo sapiens. Nature 2003, 422, 849–857.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mukhopadhyay, D.; Riezman, H. Proteasome-independent functions of ubiquitin in endocytosis and signaling. Science 2007, 315, 201–205.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sun, B.; Munroe, P.; Wang, G. Ruthenium nanocrystals as cathode catalysts for lithium-oxygen batteries with a superior performance. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 2247.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bleichert, F.; Gagnon, K.T.; Brown, B.A., 2nd; Maxwell, E.S.; Leschziner, A.E.; Unger, V.M.; Baserga, S.J. A dimeric structure for archaeal box C/D small ribonucleoproteins. Science 2009, 325, 1384–1387.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Knudsen, S. A Biologist’s Guide to Analysis of DNA Microarray Data; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2005; ISBN 9780471227588.
An edited book
Pharmacokinetics in Drug Development: Problems and Challenges in Oncology, Volume 4; Bonate, P.L., Howard, D.R., Eds.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; ISBN 9783319390512.
A chapter in an edited book
Pismen, L.M. Thin Film and Droplet Patterns Shaped by Surface Forces. In Pattern Formation at Interfaces; Colinet, P., Nepomnyashchy, A., Eds.; CISM International Centre for Mechanical Sciences; Springer: Vienna, 2010; pp. 173–217 ISBN 9783709101247.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pharmaceutics.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. Watch SpaceX’s Falcon 9 Rocket Almost Land On Floating Barge—It Was So Close! Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Status of Project PISCES; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1977;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ross, N.J. Facilitating shared understanding: A grounded theory for decision-making in pain management. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix: Phoenix, AZ, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rossellini, I. The Sphinx: Greta Garbo. New York Times 1996, 685.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePharmaceutics
ISSN (online)1999-4923
ScopePharmaceutical Science

Other styles