How to format your references using the Pharmaceutics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pharmaceutics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Horton, J.C. Boundary Disputes. Nature 2000, 406, 565.
A journal article with 2 authors
Milligan, A.J.; Morel, F.M.M. A Proton Buffering Role for Silica in Diatoms. Science 2002, 297, 1848–1850.
A journal article with 3 authors
Binshtok, A.M.; Bean, B.P.; Woolf, C.J. Inhibition of Nociceptors by TRPV1-Mediated Entry of Impermeant Sodium Channel Blockers. Nature 2007, 449, 607–610.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Biscaras, J.; Hurand, S.; Feuillet-Palma, C.; Rastogi, A.; Budhani, R.C.; Reyren, N.; Lesne, E.; Lesueur, J.; Bergeal, N. Limit of the Electrostatic Doping in Two-Dimensional Electron Gases of LaXO₃(X = Al, Ti)/SrTiO₃. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 6788.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mastro, P.F. Plastics Product Design; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2016; ISBN 9781118842669.
An edited book
Sustainable Agriculture Reviews: Volume 17; Lichtfouse, E., Ed.; Sustainable Agriculture Reviews; 1st ed. 2015.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; Vol. 17; ISBN 9783319167411.
A chapter in an edited book
Plichta, A.; Gaciarz, T.; Szomiński, S. Identification of Persons by Virtue of Hand Geometry. In Computer Information Systems and Industrial Management: 12th IFIP TC8 International Conference, CISIM 2013, Krakow, Poland, September 25-27, 2013. Proceedings; Saeed, K., Chaki, R., Cortesi, A., Wierzchoń, S., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013; pp. 36–46 ISBN 9783642409240.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pharmaceutics.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. To Fight Antibiotic Resistance, We Need To Fight Bad Prescribing Habits Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office State Department: The July 2006 Evacuation of American Citizens from Lebanon; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2007;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Locicero, L.M. The Effects of Vertical Casting Position in Reinforced Concrete. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana: Lafayette, LA, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel, B. Leader of Chiefs’ Special Teams Gives the Humble Punt Its Due. New York Times 2017, SP1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePharmaceutics
ISSN (online)1999-4923
ScopePharmaceutical Science

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