How to format your references using the Pharmaceutics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pharmaceutics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rosenzweig, A.C. Biochemistry: Breaking methane. Nature 2015, 518, 309–310.
A journal article with 2 authors
Maslin, M.A.; Burns, S.J. Reconstruction of the Amazon Basin effective moisture availability over the past 14,000 years. Science 2000, 290, 2285–2287.
A journal article with 3 authors
Showalter, M.R.; Hedman, M.M.; Burns, J.A. The impact of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 sends ripples through the rings of Jupiter. Science 2011, 332, 711–713.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Huang, Y.; Mao, K.; Chen, X.; Sun, M.-A.; Kawabe, T.; Li, W.; Usher, N.; Zhu, J.; Urban, J.F., Jr; Paul, W.E.; et al. S1P-dependent interorgan trafficking of group 2 innate lymphoid cells supports host defense. Science 2018, 359, 114–119.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tardu, S. Statistical Approach to Wall Turbulence; John Wiley & Sons, Inc: Hoboken, NJ, 2011; ISBN 9781118601624.
An edited book
Major, F.G. Charged Particle Traps: Physics and Techniques of Charged Particle Field Confinement; Gheorghe, V.N., Werth, G., Eds.; Springer Series on Atomic, Optical, and Plasma Physics; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2005; Vol. 37; ISBN 9783540220435.
A chapter in an edited book
Cho, H.; Ishida, T.; Inaba, R.; Takasaki, T.; Mori, Y. Pictogram Retrieval Based on Collective Semantics. In Human-Computer Interaction. HCI Intelligent Multimodal Interaction Environments: 12th International Conference, HCI International 2007, Beijing, China, July 22-27, 2007, Proceedings, Part III; Jacko, J.A., Ed.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007; pp. 31–39 ISBN 9783540731085.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pharmaceutics.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Breakthrough In Fight Against Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Federal Research: Small Business Involvement in Federal Research and Development; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1988;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fortenbery, N.R. Regulation of Natural Killer Cells: SHIP-1, 2B4, and Immunomodulation by Lenalidomide. Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida: Tampa, FL, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C. When Turning Away Customers Will Help the Bottom Line. New York Times 2015, B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePharmaceutics
ISSN (online)1999-4923
ScopePharmaceutical Science

Other styles