How to format your references using the Heart, Lung and Circulation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Heart, Lung and Circulation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Atlas RM. Public health. National security and the biological research community. Science 2002;298:753–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Meldrum DR, Holl MR. Tech.Sight. Microfluidics. Microscale bioanalytical systems. Science 2002;297:1197–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Krupic J, Burgess N, O’Keefe J. Neural representations of location composed of spatially periodic bands. Science 2012;337:853–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Shen Z-Q, Lo KY, Liang M-C, Ho PTP, Zhao J-H. A size of approximately 1 au for the radio source Sgr A* at the centre of the Milky Way. Nature 2005;438:62–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gage LJ. Hand-Rearing Wild and Domestic Mammals. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
Kumanov P, Agarwal A, editors. Puberty: Physiology and Abnormalities. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Katoen J-P, Gretz F, Jansen N, Kaminski BL, Olmedo F. Understanding Probabilistic Programs. In: Meyer R, Platzer A, Wehrheim H, editors. Correct System Design: Symposium in Honor of Ernst-Rüdiger Olderog on the Occasion of His 60th Birthday, Oldenburg, Germany, September 8-9, 2015, Proceedings, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015, p. 15–32.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Heart, Lung and Circulation.

Blog post
Fang J. Rats Aren’t to Blame for the Plague in Europe: It Was Gerbils. IFLScience 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Need for More Effective Audits of Federal Grants and Contracts Administered by Institutions of Higher Education. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1979.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cross A. Tinkering in k-12: an exploratory mixed methods study of makerspaces in schools as an application of constructivist learning. Doctoral dissertation. Pepperdine University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt) SK. World Briefing | Europe: Ukraine: President Tries To Fend Off Foes. New York Times 2002:A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHeart, Lung and Circulation
AbbreviationHeart Lung Circ.
ISSN (print)1443-9506
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

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