How to format your references using the Pharmaceutical Bioprocessing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pharmaceutical Bioprocessing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain C. Rejection of GM crops is not a failure for science. Nature. 525(7567), 7 (2015).
A journal article with 2 authors
Bercovici D, Ricard Y. Plate tectonics, damage and inheritance. Nature. 508(7497), 513–516 (2014).
A journal article with 3 authors
Hoffmann KF, Brindley PJ, Berriman M. Medicine. Halting harmful helminths. Science. 346(6206), 168–169 (2014).
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhu Y, Zhang X, Li R, Li Q. Planar-defect-rich zinc oxide nanoparticles assembled on carbon nanotube films as ultraviolet emitters and photocatalysts. Sci. Rep. 4, 4728 (2014).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Praetorius S, Schößer B. Bentonithandbuch. Wilhelm Ernst & Sohn, Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG, Berlin, Germany.
An edited book
Allegra G, editor. Interphases and Mesophases in Polymer Crystallization I. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Panakhyo M, Jacobi K. Limited Circumstances: Creating a Better Understanding of Prehistoric Peoples Through the Reanalysis of Collections of Commingled Human Remains. In: Theoretical Approaches to Analysis and Interpretation of Commingled Human Remains. Osterholtz AJ (Ed.), Springer International Publishing, Cham, 75–96 (2016).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pharmaceutical Bioprocessing.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. SpaceX Just Teased Us With A Video Of Its Biggest Rocket Ever. IFLScience (2017).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Social Security: Service to the Public--Accuracy of the 800 Phone Service. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Currano LJ. Latching microelectromechanical shock sensor systems: Design, modeling, and experiments. (2010).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
de la MERCED MJ. Buffett Bets on Energy With $9 Billion Bid for Texas Utility. New York Times, B1 (2017).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePharmaceutical Bioprocessing
AbbreviationPharm. Bioprocess.
ISSN (print)2048-9145
ISSN (online)2048-9153
ScopeBiomedical Engineering
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

Other styles