How to format your references using the Frontiers in Research Metrics and Analytics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Research Metrics and Analytics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Walters HRJ. Physics. Antimatter atomic physics. Science (2010) 330:762–763.
A journal article with 2 authors
Armatas GS, Kanatzidis MG. Hexagonal mesoporous germanium. Science (2006) 313:817–820.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lunshof JE, Church GM, Prainsack B. Information access. Raw personal data: providing access. Science (2014) 343:373–374.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Xu Z, Zhu X, Yu Y, Zhang N, Zhao J. Super-luminescent jet light generated by femtosecond laser pulses. Sci Rep (2014) 4:3892.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Biegelman MT, Biegelman DR. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act Compliance Guidebook. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (2010).
An edited book
Wang LK, Hung Y-T, Shammas NK eds. Advanced Physicochemical Treatment Technologies. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press (2007).
A chapter in an edited book
Wegner LH. “Interplay of Water and Nutrient Transport: A Whole-Plant Perspective,” in Progress in Botany: Vol. 76 Progress in Botany., eds. U. Lüttge, W. Beyschlag (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 109–141.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Research Metrics and Analytics.

Blog post
Andrew E. First weather map created for brown dwarf only 6 light years away. IFLScience (2014) Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. EOS Data Policy: Questions Remain About U.S. Commercial Access. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office (1992).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Giles CL. Faculty mentoring of undergraduate students: A qualitative phenomenological study. (2015)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Goldstein M, Protess B. Outline Fails to Mention Loophole for the Very Rich. New York Times (2017)A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Research Metrics and Analytics
AbbreviationFront. Res. Metr. Anal.
ISSN (online)2504-0537

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