How to format your references using the Frontiers in Research Metrics and Analytics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Research Metrics and Analytics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P. Fact or fiction? Nature (2003) 425:219.
A journal article with 2 authors
Henriksen-Lacey M, Giner-Casares JJ. Nice to know you. Science (2015) 349:1254.
A journal article with 3 authors
Martini IB, Barthel ER, Schwartz BJ. Optical control of electrons during electron transfer. Science (2001) 293:462–465.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Xiao M, Martin I, Yablonovitch E, Jiang HW. Electrical detection of the spin resonance of a single electron in a silicon field-effect transistor. Nature (2004) 430:435–439.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lunn G, Sansone EB. Destruction of Hazardous Chemicals in the Laboratory. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (2012).
An edited book
Rozenberg G, Salomaa A, Sempere JM, Zandron C eds. Membrane Computing: 16th International Conference, CMC 2015, Valencia, Spain, August 17-21, 2015, Revised Selected Papers. 1st ed. 2015. Cham: Springer International Publishing (2015). XI, 387 p. 56 illus. in color p.
A chapter in an edited book
Parret H. “From the Enquiry (1757) to the Fourth Kritisches Wäldchen (1769): Burke and Herder on the Division of the Senses.,” In: Vermeir K, Funk Deckard M, editors. The Science of Sensibility: Reading Burke’s Philosophical Enquiry. International Archives of the History of Ideas / Archives internationales d’histoire des idées. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands (2012). p. 91–106

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Research Metrics and Analytics.

Blog post
Hamilton K. The Largest Living Thing On Earth Is Mostly Hidden From View. IFLScience (2017)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information on State Versus Local Administration of CETA Prime Sponsors in Michigan. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office (1982).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Andrews M. Health literacy competencies for health professionals: A Delphi study. [Doctoral dissertation]. Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix (2014).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. To the Barricades Over a Police Barricade. New York Times (2003)145.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Research Metrics and Analytics
AbbreviationFront. Res. Metr. Anal.
ISSN (online)2504-0537

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