How to format your references using the International Journal of the Economics of Business citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of the Economics of Business. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brock, Dan W. 2002. “Human Cloning and Our Sense of Self.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 296 (5566): 314–316.
A journal article with 2 authors
Teruel, Mary N., and Tobias Meyer. 2002. “Parallel Single-Cell Monitoring of Receptor-Triggered Membrane Translocation of a Calcium-Sensing Protein Module.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 295 (5561): 1910–1912.
A journal article with 3 authors
David, C., N. A. Mortensen, and J. Christensen. 2013. “Perfect Imaging, Epsilon-near Zero Phenomena and Waveguiding in the Scope of Nonlocal Effects.” Scientific Reports 3: 2526.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Li, Mei, Ye Zhu, Hongbin Zhang, Lihua Li, Peng He, Hong Xia, Yu Zhang, and Chuanbin Mao. 2014. “Delivery of Inhibitor of Growth 4 (ING4) Gene Significantly Inhibits Proliferation and Invasion and Promotes Apoptosis of Human Osteosarcoma Cells.” Scientific Reports 4 (December): 7380.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Guillaume, Philippe. 2006. Music and Acoustics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Kirkwood, David H. 2010. Semi-Solid Processing of Alloys. Edited by Michel Suéry, Plato Kapranos, Helen V. Atkinson, and Kenneth P. Young. Vol. 124. Springer Series in Materials Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Pacelli, Vincenzo. 2016. “The Case Study of Goldman Sachs.” In Managing Reputation in The Banking Industry: Theory and Practice, edited by Stefano Dell’Atti and Annarita Trotta, 79–99. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of the Economics of Business.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, Jonathan. 2016. “A SpaceX Rocket Just Exploded At Cape Canaveral In Florida.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1998. Airline Competition: Barriers to Entry Continue in Some Domestic Markets. T-RCED-98-112. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Weitkunat, Sydney. 2015. “Facies and Log Analysis of the Tuscaloosa Marine Shale.” Doctoral dissertation, Lafayette, LA: University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Simon, Linda. 2007. “In the Blink of an Eye, a Vision of Disaster.” New York Times, September 4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brock 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Brock 2002; Teruel and Meyer 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Teruel and Meyer 2002)
  • Three authors: (David, Mortensen, and Christensen 2013)
  • 4 or more authors: (Li et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of the Economics of Business
ISSN (print)1357-1516
ISSN (online)1466-1829
ScopeBusiness, Management and Accounting (miscellaneous)
Economics and Econometrics

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