How to format your references using the International Journal of the Economics of Business citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of the Economics of Business. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Harden, Nicholas. 2005. “Cell Biology. Of Grainy Heads and Broken Skins.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 308 (5720): 364–365.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kang, Byoungwoo, and Gerbrand Ceder. 2009. “Battery Materials for Ultrafast Charging and Discharging.” Nature 458 (7235): 190–193.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gong, Maogang, Alec Kirkeminde, and Shenqiang Ren. 2013. “Symmetry-Defying Iron Pyrite (FeS₂) Nanocrystals through Oriented Attachment.” Scientific Reports 3: 2092.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Wang, Jing, Lian Zhou, Hui Shi, Mawsheng Chern, Hong Yu, Hong Yi, Min He, et al. 2018. “A Single Transcription Factor Promotes Both Yield and Immunity in Rice.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 361 (6406): 1026–1028.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Çapin, Tolga K., Igor S. Pandzic, Nadia Magnenat-Thalmann, and Daniel Thalmann. 2001. Avatars in Networked Virtual Environments. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Wang, Jun, Xiaofeng Liao, and Zhang Yi, eds. 2005. Advances in Neural Networks – ISNN 2005: Second International Symposium on Neural Networks, Chongqing, China, May 30 - June 1, 2005, Proceedings, Part I. Vol. 3496. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Ferrarese, G., and D. Bini. 2008. “Relativistic Kinematics for a Three-Dimensional Continuum.” In Introduction to Relativistic Continuum Mechanics, edited by G. Ferrarese and D. Bini, 169–206. Lecture Notes in Physics. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of the Economics of Business.

Blog post
Hale, Tom. 2016. “Naked Penguin Gets A New Wetsuit For Winter.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1994. Air Force C-17 Embedded Computers. AIMD-95-12R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Polderman, Maria Catharina. 2006. “Textile Factories and Subsistence Plots: Rural Women’s Livelihoods and Unique Transition Experiences in Bulgaria.” Doctoral dissertation, Columbus, OH: Ohio State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McAULEY, James. 2017. “Breaking the Mold.” New York Times, March 17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Williams 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Sowers 2006; Visscher 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kang and Ceder 2009)
  • Three authors: (Gong, Kirkeminde, and Ren 2013)
  • 4 or more authors: (Hussain et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of the Economics of Business
ISSN (print)1357-1516
ISSN (online)1466-1829
ScopeBusiness, Management and Accounting (miscellaneous)
Economics and Econometrics

Other styles