How to format your references using the International Journal of the Economics of Business citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of the Economics of Business. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Poo, Mu-Ming. 2004. “Cultural Reflections.” Nature 428 (6979): 204–205.
A journal article with 2 authors
Williams, Dillwyn, and Keith Baverstock. 2006. “Chernobyl and the Future: Too Soon for a Final Diagnosis.” Nature 440 (7087): 993–994.
A journal article with 3 authors
Werner, Shannon L., Derren Barken, and Alexander Hoffmann. 2005. “Stimulus Specificity of Gene Expression Programs Determined by Temporal Control of IKK Activity.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 309 (5742): 1857–1861.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Busemeyer, Lucas, Arno Ruckelshausen, Kim Möller, Albrecht E. Melchinger, Katharina V. Alheit, Hans Peter Maurer, Volker Hahn, Elmar A. Weissmann, Jochen C. Reif, and Tobias Würschum. 2013. “Precision Phenotyping of Biomass Accumulation in Triticale Reveals Temporal Genetic Patterns of Regulation.” Scientific Reports 3: 2442.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Aksamija, Ajla. 2016. Integrating Innovation in Architecture. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Henes, Mary, and Brian H. Murray, eds. 2016. Travel Writing, Visual Culture and Form, 1760–1900. Palgrave Studies in Nineteenth-Century Writing and Culture. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.
A chapter in an edited book
Nikulin, Mikhail, and Hong-Dar Isaac Wu. 2016. “Cross-Effect Models of Survival Functions.” In The Cox Model and Its Applications, edited by Hong-Dar Isaac Wu, 63–69. SpringerBriefs in Statistics. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of the Economics of Business.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2014. “How To Find Faster-Than-Light Particles.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1979. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare Standards of Employee Conduct Need Improvement. FPCD-79-29. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Walsh, Elizabeth Franziska. 2010. “The Development of Comprehensive Criminal Justice Leadership Standards: A Modified Delphi Study Approach.” Doctoral dissertation, Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), Sophia Kishkovsky. 2004. “World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Apology Demanded For Latvian Insult.” New York Times, December 22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Poo 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Poo 2004; Williams and Baverstock 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Williams and Baverstock 2006)
  • Three authors: (Werner, Barken, and Hoffmann 2005)
  • 4 or more authors: (Busemeyer et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of the Economics of Business
ISSN (print)1357-1516
ISSN (online)1466-1829
ScopeBusiness, Management and Accounting (miscellaneous)
Economics and Econometrics

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