How to format your references using the International Journal of the Economics of Business citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of the Economics of Business. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zahn, Rainer. 2009. “Climate Change: Beyond the CO(2) Connection.” Nature 460 (7253): 335–336.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hines, P. J., and J. Marx. 2001. “The Endless Race between Plant and Pathogen.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 292 (5525): 2269.
A journal article with 3 authors
Barsic, Anthony, Ginni Grover, and Rafael Piestun. 2014. “Three-Dimensional Super-Resolution and Localization of Dense Clusters of Single Molecules.” Scientific Reports 4 (June): 5388.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Dellis, Olivier, Skarlatos G. Dedos, Stephen C. Tovey, Taufiq-Ur-Rahman, Stefan J. Dubel, and Colin W. Taylor. 2006. “Ca2+ Entry through Plasma Membrane IP3 Receptors.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 313 (5784): 229–233.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Church, Richard L., and Alan T. Murray. 2008. Business Site Selection, Location Analysis and GIS. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Jarm, Tomaz, Peter Kramar, and Anze Zupanic, eds. 2007. 11th Mediterranean Conference on Medical and Biomedical Engineering and Computing 2007: MEDICON 2007, 26-30 June 2007, Ljubljana, Slovenia. Vol. 16. IFMBE Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Villela-Petit, Maria. 2009. “The Transcendental and the Singular: Husserl and the Existential Thinkers Between the Two World Wars.” In Phenomenology and Existentialism in the Twentieth Century: Book One New Waves of Philosophical Inspirations, edited by A-T Tymieniecka, 31–43. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of the Economics of Business.

Blog post
Hale, Tom. 2016. “Explore A Mystery Structure Found At A Stone Age Dump Through This 3D Model.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2017. High Risk: Actions Needed to Address Serious Weaknesses in Federal Management of Programs Serving Indian Tribes. GAO-17-587T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schellhous, William T. 2017. “Factors and Interactions Contributing to the Risk of Fire Following Earthquake for Urban Southern California.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, Ben. 2017. “Defending Champion Kerber Is Ousted.” New York Times, August 30.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Zahn 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Zahn 2009; Hines and Marx 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hines and Marx 2001)
  • Three authors: (Barsic, Grover, and Piestun 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Dellis et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of the Economics of Business
ISSN (print)1357-1516
ISSN (online)1466-1829
ScopeBusiness, Management and Accounting (miscellaneous)
Economics and Econometrics

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