How to format your references using the International Journal of the Economics of Business citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of the Economics of Business. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nadis, S. 2000. “Top Physicist Crosses to Boston in Search of like Minds.” Nature 404 (6780): 798.
A journal article with 2 authors
Skotheim, Jan M., and L. Mahadevan. 2005. “Physical Limits and Design Principles for Plant and Fungal Movements.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 308 (5726): 1308–1310.
A journal article with 3 authors
Alfe, D., M. J. Gillan, and G. D. Price. 2000. “Constraints on the Composition of the Earth’s Core from Ab Initio Calculations.” Nature 405 (6783): 172–175.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Keenan, Rebecca A., Alessandra De Riva, Björn Corleis, Lucy Hepburn, Steve Licence, Thomas H. Winkler, and Inga-Lill Mårtensson. 2008. “Censoring of Autoreactive B Cell Development by the Pre-B Cell Receptor.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 321 (5889): 696–699.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dimond, Bridgit. 2010. Legal Aspects of Occupational Therapy. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Koornneef, Floor, and Coen van Gulijk, eds. 2015. Computer Safety, Reliability, and Security: 34th International Conference, SAFECOMP 2015, Delft, The Netherlands, September 23-25, 2015, Proceedings. Vol. 9337. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Cogliati, Benoît, and Yannick Seurin. 2016. “EWCDM: An Efficient, Beyond-Birthday Secure, Nonce-Misuse Resistant MAC.” In Advances in Cryptology – CRYPTO 2016: 36th Annual International Cryptology Conference, Santa Barbara, CA, USA, August 14-18, 2016, Proceedings, Part I, edited by Matthew Robshaw and Jonathan Katz, 121–149. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of the Economics of Business.

Blog post
Davis, Josh. 2015. “Scientists Film White Blood Cells Dying for the First Time Ever.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2014. School-Meals Programs: USDA Has Enhanced Controls, but Additional Verification Could Help Ensure Legitimate Program Access. GAO-14-262. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Reich, Lori Mullan. 2012. “Adapted Physical Education Teachers’ Attitudes towards Their Students with Hidden and Visible Disabilities.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bogle, John C. 2017. “Putting Clients Second.” New York Times, February 9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nadis 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Nadis 2000; Skotheim and Mahadevan 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Skotheim and Mahadevan 2005)
  • Three authors: (Alfe, Gillan, and Price 2000)
  • 4 or more authors: (Keenan et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of the Economics of Business
ISSN (print)1357-1516
ISSN (online)1466-1829
ScopeBusiness, Management and Accounting (miscellaneous)
Economics and Econometrics

Other styles