How to format your references using the Classical and Quantum Gravity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Classical and Quantum Gravity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Falkowski P 2012 Ocean Science: The power of plankton Nature 483 S17-20
A journal article with 2 authors
Sherwood S and Fu Q 2014 Climate change. A drier future? Science 343 737–9
A journal article with 3 authors
Nicoll R A, Tomita S and Bredt D S 2006 Auxiliary subunits assist AMPA-type glutamate receptors Science 311 1253–6
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Petitto L A, Holowka S, Sergio L E and Ostry D 2001 Language rhythms in baby hand movements Nature 413 35–6

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Promislow S D 2010 Fundamentals of Actuarial Mathematics (Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd)
An edited book
Alexander M, D’Ambra P, Belloum A, Bosilca G, Cannataro M, Danelutto M, Martino B D, Gerndt M, Jeannot E, Namyst R, Roman J, Scott S L, Traff J L, Vallée G and Weidendorfer J 2012 Euro-Par 2011: Parallel Processing Workshops: CCPI, CGWS, HeteroPar, HiBB, HPCVirt, HPPC, HPSS, MDGS, ProPer, Resilience, UCHPC, VHPC, Bordeaux, France, August 29 – September 2, 2011, Revised Selected Papers, Part II vol 7156 (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer)
A chapter in an edited book
Persona P and Ori C 2014 Simulation in Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Anaesthesia, Pharmacology, Intensive Care and Emergency A.P.I.C.E: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Meeting - International Symposium on Critical Care Medicine ed A Gullo (Milano: Springer) pp 39–46

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Classical and Quantum Gravity.

Blog post
Hamilton K 2015 NASA Satellite Provides Global Precipitation Map And 3D Video Of Winter Storm IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1981 NASA’s Standard Parts Program--Are the Objectives Being Accomplished? (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shakya S 2013 Characterization of Interaction of Calmodulin and its Chimeras with Orai1 Doctoral dissertation (Edwardsville, IL: Southern Illinois University)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M 1994 IN GAZA, PEACE MEETS PATHOLOGY New York Times 656

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClassical and Quantum Gravity
AbbreviationClass. Quantum Gravity
ISSN (print)0264-9381
ISSN (online)1361-6382
ScopePhysics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)

Other styles