How to format your references using the Classical and Quantum Gravity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Classical and Quantum Gravity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kenyon C J 2010 The genetics of ageing Nature 464 504–12
A journal article with 2 authors
Bellwood P and White P 2005 Domesticated pigs in eastern Indonesia Science 309 381; author reply 381
A journal article with 3 authors
Cox D, Meyers E and Sinha P 2004 Contextually evoked object-specific responses in human visual cortex Science 304 115–7
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Happel P, Möller K, Schwering N K and Dietzel I D 2013 Migrating oligodendrocyte progenitor cells swell prior to soma dislocation Sci. Rep. 3 1806

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mitola J III 2002 Software Radio Architecture (New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
An edited book
Rubin I L, Merrick J, Greydanus D E and Patel D R 2016 Health Care for People with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities across the Lifespan (Cham: Springer International Publishing)
A chapter in an edited book
Wolverton S, Barker A and Dombrosky J 2016 Paleoethnobiology Introduction to Ethnobiology ed U P Albuquerque and R R Nóbrega Alves (Cham: Springer International Publishing) pp 25–32

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Classical and Quantum Gravity.

Blog post
Carpineti A 2016 Sticker-Sized Satellites Will Soon Get To Orbit IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1996 Education and Employment Issue Area Plan--Fiscal Years 1996-98 (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hardin J 2010 A study of social cognitive theory: The relationship between professional learning communities and collective teacher efficacy in international school settings Doctoral dissertation (Minneapolis, MN: Capella University)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S 2012 Russia: Prosecutors Investigate After Exhibition Draws Complaints New York Times A7

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClassical and Quantum Gravity
AbbreviationClass. Quantum Gravity
ISSN (print)0264-9381
ISSN (online)1361-6382
ScopePhysics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)

Other styles