How to format your references using the Classical and Quantum Gravity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Classical and Quantum Gravity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McKinney J C 2012 Astronomy. Probing black hole gravity Science 337 916–7
A journal article with 2 authors
Joanicot M and Ajdari A 2005 Applied physics. Droplet control for microfluidics Science 309 887–8
A journal article with 3 authors
Tobie G, Lunine J I and Sotin C 2006 Episodic outgassing as the origin of atmospheric methane on Titan Nature 440 61–4
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Hemphill D D, McIlwraith C W, Samulski R J and Goodrich L R 2014 Adeno-associated viral vectors show serotype specific transduction of equine joint tissue explants and cultured monolayers Sci. Rep. 4 5861

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lieberman N P 2012 Troubleshooting Vacuum Systems (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
An edited book
Gallego M and Schofield N 2016 The Political Economy of Social Choices (Cham: Springer International Publishing)
A chapter in an edited book
Ishii M and Hibiki T 2011 Time Averaged Balance Equation Thermo-Fluid Dynamics of Two-Phase Flow ed T Hibiki (New York, NY: Springer) pp 93–117

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Classical and Quantum Gravity.

Blog post
Hamilton K 2017 Do You Really Choose What You Eat – Or Do Your Gut Microbes Decide For You? IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1991 Armored Systems Modernization: Program Inconsistent With Current Threat and Budgetary Constraints (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Byrd W E 2009 Relational programming in miniKanren: Techniques, applications, and implementations Doctoral dissertation (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leland J 2016 Mystery Ends: Date and Venue Are Set for Chess Event New York Times A17

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClassical and Quantum Gravity
AbbreviationClass. Quantum Gravity
ISSN (print)0264-9381
ISSN (online)1361-6382
ScopePhysics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)

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