How to format your references using the Classical and Quantum Gravity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Classical and Quantum Gravity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Oster G 2002 Brownian ratchets: Darwin’s motors Nature 417 25
A journal article with 2 authors
Geissler P W and Okwaro F 2014 Developing world: Discuss inequality Nature 513 303
A journal article with 3 authors
Ren A, Rajashankar K R and Patel D J 2012 Fluoride ion encapsulation by Mg2+ ions and phosphates in a fluoride riboswitch Nature 486 85–9
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Finer M, Jenkins C N, Sky M A B and Pine J 2014 Logging concessions enable illegal logging crisis in the Peruvian Amazon Sci. Rep. 4 4719

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ferrari M L, Damo U M, Turan A and Sánchez D 2017 Hybrid Systems Based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd)
An edited book
Hsu R C-H and Wang S 2014 Internet of Vehicles – Technologies and Services: First International Conference, IOV, Beijing, China, September 1-3, 2014. Proceedings vol 8662 (Cham: Springer International Publishing)
A chapter in an edited book
Burton B, Lepp M, Morrison M and O’Toole J 2015 From DRACON to Cooling Conflict Acting to Manage Conflict and Bullying Through Evidence-Based Strategies ed M Lepp, M Morrison and J O’Toole (Cham: Springer International Publishing) pp 37–57

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Classical and Quantum Gravity.

Blog post
Davis J 2015 Our Ancestors Probably Got Less Sleep Than We Do IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1996 Emergency Relief: Status of the Replacement of the Cypress Viaduct (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Albrinck B M 2010 An Exploratory Study of Urban Transportation and Air Quality Issues Using CO as an Indicator Doctoral dissertation (Cincinnati, OH: University of Cincinnati)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L 2007 Free-Speech Case Divides Bush and Religious Right New York Times A22

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClassical and Quantum Gravity
AbbreviationClass. Quantum Gravity
ISSN (print)0264-9381
ISSN (online)1361-6382
ScopePhysics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)

Other styles