How to format your references using the Classical and Quantum Gravity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Classical and Quantum Gravity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
DeMarco B 2010 Physics. An atomic view of quantum phase transitions Science 329 523–4
A journal article with 2 authors
Garcia V and Bibes M 2012 Electronics: inside story of ferroelectric memories Nature 483 279–81
A journal article with 3 authors
Yang X, Minton T K and Zhang D H 2012 Chemistry. Rethinking chemical reactions at hyperthermal energies Science 336 1650–1
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Witte S, Zinkstok R T, Ubachs W, Hogervorst W and Eikema K S E 2005 Deep-ultraviolet quantum interference metrology with ultrashort laser pulses Science 307 400–3

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Equipment Testing Procedures Committee 2002 Centrifugal Pumps (Newtonian Liquids) (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
An edited book
Villar E 2008 Embedded Systems Specification and Design Languages: Selected contributions from FDL’07 vol 10 (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands)
A chapter in an edited book
Pluhacek M, Senkerik R and Zelinka I 2013 Multiple Choice Strategy – A Novel Approach for Particle Swarm Optimization – Preliminary Study Artificial Intelligence and Soft Computing: 12th International Conference, ICAISC 2013, Zakopane, Poland, June 9-13, 2013, Proceedings, Part II Lecture Notes in Computer Science ed L Rutkowski, M Korytkowski, R Scherer, R Tadeusiewicz, L A Zadeh and J M Zurada (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer) pp 36–45

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Classical and Quantum Gravity.

Blog post
Andrew E 2015 Crowdsourcing The Serengeti: How Citizen Scientists Classified Millions Of Photos From Home IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1988 The Management and Operation of FCC’s Public Reference Rooms (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Momcheva I G 2009 Environments of strong gravitational lenses Doctoral dissertation (Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly E 1994 PLAYING IN THE NEIGHBORHOOD New York Times 148

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClassical and Quantum Gravity
AbbreviationClass. Quantum Gravity
ISSN (print)0264-9381
ISSN (online)1361-6382
ScopePhysics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)

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