How to format your references using the Differentiation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Differentiation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Vane, J.R., 2002. Biomedicine. Back to an aspirin a day? Science 296, 474–475.
A journal article with 2 authors
Boles, M.A., Talapin, D.V., 2014. Chemistry. Connecting the dots. Science 344, 1340–1341.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ellwood, M.J., Wille, M., Maher, W., 2010. Glacial silicic acid concentrations in the Southern Ocean. Science 330, 1088–1091.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lan, P., Tan, M., Zhang, Y., Niu, S., Chen, J., Shi, S., Qiu, S., Wang, X., Peng, X., Cai, G., Cheng, H., Wu, J., Li, G., Lei, M., 2018. Structural insight into precursor tRNA processing by yeast ribonuclease P. Science 362.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Horrocks, G., 2010. Greek. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Thomsen, M.R., Tamke, M., Gengnagel, C., Faircloth, B., Scheurer, F. (Eds.), 2015. Modelling Behaviour: Design Modelling Symposium 2015. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Whiten, A., 2016. The Evolution of Hominin Culture and Its Ancient Pre-hominin Foundations, in: Haidle, M.N., Conard, N.J., Bolus, M. (Eds.), The Nature of Culture: Based on an Interdisciplinary Symposium ‘The Nature of Culture’, Tübingen, Germany, Vertebrate Paleobiology and Paleoanthropology. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 27–39.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Differentiation.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Dear Parents, You Are Being Lied To [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1994. School-Age Children: Poverty and Diversity Challenge Schools Nationwide (No. HEHS-94-132). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Britigan, D.H., 2009. Health information sources and health literacy levels of Latinos in a midwestern tri -state area (Doctoral dissertation). University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S.K., 2002. World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Floods Wreak Havoc. New York Times A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Vane, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Boles and Talapin, 2014; Vane, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Boles and Talapin, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Lan et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleDifferentiation
ISSN (print)0301-4681
ScopeCancer Research
Cell Biology
Developmental Biology
Molecular Biology

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