How to format your references using the Differentiation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Differentiation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jones, D., 2001. DaedalusThe tense road. Nature 411, 758.
A journal article with 2 authors
Moran, T.G., Davila, J.M., 2004. Three-dimensional polarimetric imaging of coronal mass ejections. Science 305, 66–70.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gans, J., Wolinsky, M., Dunbar, J., 2005. Computational improvements reveal great bacterial diversity and high metal toxicity in soil. Science 309, 1387–1390.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Douglas, S.M., Dietz, H., Liedl, T., Högberg, B., Graf, F., Shih, W.M., 2009. Self-assembly of DNA into nanoscale three-dimensional shapes. Nature 459, 414–418.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nellist, J.G., 2005. Understanding Telecommunications and Lightwave Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Curry, G.L., 2009. Manufacturing Systems Modeling and Analysis. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Guo-hao, D., Hua, L., Jian-Xia, L., Jin-Zhi, F., 2014. Parallel Solver for Hypersonic Flow Based on Block-Structured Grid, in: Li, K., Xiao, Z., Wang, Y., Du, J., Li, Keqin (Eds.), Parallel Computational Fluid Dynamics: 25th International Conference, ParCFD 2013, Changsha, China, May 20-24, 2013. Revised Selected Papers, Communications in Computer and Information Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 37–53.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Differentiation.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2017. The Definitive, Scientific Answers To 20 Health Questions Everyone Has [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1993. Comments on CRS Direct Loan Report (No. HRD-93-20R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hilton, L.C., 2015. Case study on organic farming as a sustainable solution for African-American farmers (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M., 2010. Pop Up, Jump Under. New York Times E4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Jones, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Jones, 2001; Moran and Davila, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Moran and Davila, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Douglas et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleDifferentiation
ISSN (print)0301-4681
ScopeCancer Research
Cell Biology
Developmental Biology
Molecular Biology

Other styles