How to format your references using the Differentiation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Differentiation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pither, J., 2007. Comment on “Dispersal limitations matter for microbial morphospecies.” Science 316, 1124; author reply 1124.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kioussis, D., Georgopoulos, K., 2007. Epigenetic flexibility underlying lineage choices in the adaptive immune system. Science 317, 620–622.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ilonidis, S., Zhao, J., Kosovichev, A., 2011. Detection of emerging sunspot regions in the solar interior. Science 333, 993–996.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Tommasi, A., Gibert, B., Seipold, U., Mainprice, D., 2001. Anisotropy of thermal diffusivity in the upper mantle. Nature 411, 783–786.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Carrasco, R.A., Johnston, M., 2008. Non-Binary Error Control Coding for Wireless Communication and Data Storage. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Noakes, D.L.G., Romero, A., Zhao, Y., Zhou, Y. (Eds.), 2010. Chinese Fishes, Developments in Environmental Biology of Fishes. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Issar, G., Navon, L.R., 2016. Drum, Buffer, Rope and Days of Inventory (DOI) Control, in: Navon, L.R. (Ed.), Operational Excellence: A Concise Guide to Basic Concepts and Their Application, Management for Professionals. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 21–24.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Differentiation.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. In a Water-Scarce West of the Future, Who Will be Hit Hardest? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1992. National Assessment Technical Quality (No. PEMD-92-22R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chapman, T.W., 2017. Evaluating the δ13C Value of n-Alkanes as a Recorder of Atmospheric Chemistry (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Murphy, M.J.O., 2015. Weekend Entertainments From the Archives of The New York Times. New York Times C27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pither, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Kioussis and Georgopoulos, 2007; Pither, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kioussis and Georgopoulos, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Tommasi et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleDifferentiation
ISSN (print)0301-4681
ScopeCancer Research
Cell Biology
Developmental Biology
Molecular Biology

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