How to format your references using the Differentiation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Differentiation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Risbey, J., 2015. Earth science: Free and forced climate variations. Nature 517, 562–563.
A journal article with 2 authors
Waldmann, H., Cobbold, S., 2004. Exploiting tolerance processes in transplantation. Science 305, 209–212.
A journal article with 3 authors
Deller, A.T., Bailes, M., Tingay, S.J., 2009. Implications of a VLBI distance to the double pulsar J0737-3039A/B. Science 323, 1327–1329.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Benner, S.A., Caraco, M.D., Thomson, J.M., Gaucher, E.A., 2002. Planetary biology--paleontological, geological, and molecular histories of life. Science 296, 864–868.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chiasson, A.D., 2016. Geothermal Heat Pump and Heat Engine Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Sencar, H.T., Memon, N. (Eds.), 2013. Digital Image Forensics: There is More to a Picture than Meets the Eye. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Santos, N., Veiga, L., Ferreira, P., 2007. Vector-Field Consistency for Ad-Hoc Gaming, in: Cerqueira, R., Campbell, R.H. (Eds.), Middleware 2007: ACM/IFIP/USENIX 8th International Middleware Conference, Newport Beach, CA, USA, November 26-30, 2007. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 80–100.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Differentiation.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2016. Cretaceous Insect Larvae Hunted Spiders Using Long Legs, Sharp Jaws [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2014. Telecommunications: FCC Should Improve the Accountability and Transparency of High-Cost Program Funding (No. GAO-14-587). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ledgister, N.L., 2015. A study of transformational leadership and job satisfaction among leaders in Jamaica Baptist Union churches (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Burghardt, L.F., 2007. For Police Recruits, Training in Tolerance. New York Times LI11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Risbey, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Risbey, 2015; Waldmann and Cobbold, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Waldmann and Cobbold, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Benner et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleDifferentiation
ISSN (print)0301-4681
ScopeCancer Research
Cell Biology
Developmental Biology
Molecular Biology

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