How to format your references using the Differentiation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Differentiation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McNally, E.M., 2012. Genetics: broken giant linked to heart failure. Nature 483, 281–282.
A journal article with 2 authors
Salzman, H., Lowell, L., 2008. Making the grade. Nature 453, 28–30.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bacci, A., Huguenard, J.R., Prince, D.A., 2004. Long-lasting self-inhibition of neocortical interneurons mediated by endocannabinoids. Nature 431, 312–316.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ning, W., Du, H., Kong, F., Yang, J., Han, Y., Tian, M., Zhang, Y., 2013. One-dimensional weak antilocalization in single-crystal Bi2Te3 nanowires. Sci. Rep. 3, 1564.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fernandes, R., 2014. Local and Regional Flaps in Head & Neck Reconstruction. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Ruppert, D., 2015. Statistics and Data Analysis for Financial Engineering: with R examples, 2nd ed. 2015. ed, Springer Texts in Statistics. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Akbarinia, R., Tlili, M., Pacitti, E., Valduriez, P., Lima, A.A.B., 2010. Continuous Timestamping for Efficient Replication Management in DHTs, in: Hameurlain, A., Morvan, F., Tjoa, A.M. (Eds.), Data Management in Grid and Peer-to-Peer Systems: Third International Conference, Globe 2010, Bilbao, Spain, September 1-2, 2010. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 38–49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Differentiation.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Human Head Transplants Could Become A Reality By 2017 [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2014. Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle: Introducing Competition into National Security Space Launch Acquisitions (No. GAO-14-259T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Benware, A., 2017. The Roles of Teaching Experience and Authoritative Classroom Management Style on Student Discipline (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bilefsky, D., Chan, S., 2017. Dispute Over British Baby’s Fate Draws In President and Pope. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (McNally, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (McNally, 2012; Salzman and Lowell, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Salzman and Lowell, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Ning et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleDifferentiation
ISSN (print)0301-4681
ScopeCancer Research
Cell Biology
Developmental Biology
Molecular Biology

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